ATLA Staff Writer

The “Three Rs” of Russell & Burch, reduction, refinement and replacement, had their origin in a project initiated in 1954 by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), which led to the publication in 1959 of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch (1). In 1978, David Smyth used the word alternatives to define the Three Rs (2).
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