University of Nottingham

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Richard Clothier: An Appreciation

Michael Balls

The career of Richard Clothier is reviewed in the light of his long-standing collaboration with Michael Balls and Laurens Ruben at the University of East Anglia (UEA), the University of Nottingham, and Reed College, Portland, Oregon, USA. It began with work at UEA on the aetiology of the lymphosarcoma of Xenopus laevis, followed by studies on the effects of exposure to N-nitroso-N-methylurea on T-cell functions, which led to many contributions to comparative immunology. This was followed by the establishment of the FRAME Research Programme, which led to participation in extensive studies on the development of in vitro cytotoxicity tests and their application in acute and topical toxicity testing. A FRAME Trustee since 1983, Richard Clothier was a co-founder, and subsequently Director, of the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory in the University of Nottingham Medical School, where he led successful collaborations with a number of industrial partners and, in particular, with the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM).
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FRAME and the Validation Process

Michael Balls and Richard Clothier

FRAME’s historical involvement in the development of the principles of validation, whereby the reliability and relevance of a procedure are established for a specific purpose, and in the practical application of the process, is summarised, and examples of participation in various validation studies on in vitro tests are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the need for a parallel invalidation process, and on the role of ATLA as a forum for objective reporting and discussion on all aspects of the validation process.
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FRAME, the Three Rs and the Russell Archive at the University of Nottingham

Michael Balls

The objectives of the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME) are spelled out, as laid down in the Charity’s Trust Deed of 1969, and the support of the Charity’s trustees, consultants, patrons and staff in all that has been achieved during its first 40 years, are recognised. The recent establishment of the W.M.S. and Claire Russell Archive at the University of Nottingham is recognised as a further important link between FRAME and the University.
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Systems Biology in Alternatives: The Importance of Human-based Studies

Andrew Bennett

The aim of research in the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory at the University of Nottingham Medical School is summarised, i.e. to use human cell culture-based projects and in vivo studies in human volunteers as alternatives to the use of rodent models in the study of human disease. This is especially important when the available animal models do not adequately represent the pathophysiological situation in humans. The approach is exemplified by summaries of studies on the effects of starvation on skeletal muscle in human volunteers, and on lipid metabolism in obese female volunteers.
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Finding the Courage: The Unconventional Lives of WMS and Claire Russell

Cleo Paskal

WMS and Claire Russell led lives of extraordinary intellectual adventure, spanning from the traditional formal education of Oxford University to the creativity of science fiction and the experimental world of mid-20th Century psychoanalysis. The verbal and pictorial illustrations presented in this article offer an insight into the vast collection of documents related to their lives and work currently being catalogued in the Manuscripts and Special Collections department of the University of Nottingham.
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