toxicogenomics

/Tag:toxicogenomics

Toward the Replacement of Animal Experiments through the Bioinformatics-driven Analysis of ‘Omics’ Data from Human Cell Cultures

Roland C. Grafström, Penny Nymark, Vesa Hongisto, Ola Spjuth, Rebecca Ceder, Egon Willighagen, Barry Hardy, Samuel Kaski and Pekka Kohonen

This paper outlines the work for which Roland Grafström and Pekka Kohonen were awarded the 2014 Lush Science Prize. The research activities of the Grafström laboratory have, for many years, covered cancer biology studies, as well as the development and application of toxicity-predictive in vitro models to determine chemical safety. Through the integration of in silico analyses of diverse types of genomics data (transcriptomic and proteomic), their efforts have proved to fit well into the recently-developed Adverse Outcome Pathway paradigm. Genomics analysis within state-of-the-art cancer biology research and Toxicology in the 21st Century concepts share many technological tools. A key category within the Three Rs paradigm is the Replacement of animals in toxicity testing with alternative methods, such as bioinformatics-driven analyses of data obtained from human cell cultures exposed to diverse toxicants. This work was recently expanded within the pan-European SEURAT-1 project (Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing), to replace repeat-dose toxicity testing with data-rich analyses of sophisticated cell culture models. The aims and objectives of the SEURAT project have been to guide the application, analysis, interpretation and storage of ‘omics’ technology-derived data within the service-oriented sub-project, ToxBank. Particularly addressing the Lush Science Prize focus on the relevance of toxicity pathways, a ‘data warehouse’ that is under continuous expansion, coupled with the development of novel data storage and management methods for toxicology, serve to address data integration across multiple ‘omics’ technologies. The prize winners’ guiding principles and concepts for modern knowledge management of toxicological data are summarised. The translation of basic discovery results ranged from chemical-testing and material testing data, to information relevant to human health and environmental safety.
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Genomics: An In Vitro Toxicology Point of View

Raffaella Corvi

Genomics, and in particular its derived discipline, toxicogenomics, are rapidly developing technologies, which permit studies on the impact of chemicals and drugs on gene expression in particular biological systems. Enormous amounts of data will be provided in the context of mechanistic and predictive toxicology from the use of the DNA microarray approach for the simultaneous analysis of the expression pattern of multiple genes. The high-throughput requirement of these approaches necessitates in vitrocell culture systems. This article will give a short overview of the areas of ECVAM's research in which this technology will initially be applied.
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Toxicogenomics in Drug Discovery and Development — Making an Impact

Quin Wills and Cathrine Mitchell

As a branch of pharmacogenomics aimed at predicting drug safety concerns, toxicogenomics drew much excitement with the emergence of technologies such as gene expression microarrays. A few years down the line, the evidence is scant that current approaches to toxicogenomics are really making an impact in areas such as preclinical toxicology. It has been argued that there needs to be a re-focus of application toward high-throughput approaches which combine the best of tissue and genomic modelling. This commentary gives a brief introduction to in vitro toxicogenomics, drawn from the perspectives of the specialist toxicogenomics company, SimuGen.
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