surfactants

/Tag:surfactants

In Vitro Assessment of Skin Irritation Potential of Surfactant-based Formulations by Using a 3-D Skin Reconstructed Tissue Model and Cytokine Response

Russel M. Walters, Lisa Gandolfi, M. Catherine Mack, Michael Fevola, Katharine Martin, Mathew T. Hamilton, Allison Hilberer, Nicole Barnes, Nathan Wilt, Jennifer R. Nash, Hans A. Raabe and Gertrude-Emilia Costin

The personal care industry is focused on developing safe, more efficacious, and increasingly milder products, that are routinely undergoing preclinical and clinical testing before becoming available for consumer use on skin. In vitro systems based on skin reconstructed equivalents are now established for the preclinical assessment of product irritation potential and as alternative testing methods to the classic Draize rabbit skin irritation test. We have used the 3-D EpiDerm™ model system to evaluate tissue viability and primary cytokine interleukin-1α release as a way to evaluate the potential dermal irritation of 224 non-ionic, amphoteric and/or anionic surfactant-containing formulations, or individual raw materials. As part of our testing programme, two representative benchmark materials with known clinical skin irritation potential were qualified through repeated testing, for use as references for the skin irritation evaluation of formulations containing new surfactant ingredients. We have established a correlation between the in vitro screening approach and clinical testing, and are continually expanding our database to enhance this correlation. This testing programme integrates the efforts of global manufacturers of personal care products that focus on the development of increasingly milder formulations to be applied to the skin, without the use of animal testing.

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The Use of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo for the Acute Toxicity Testing of Surfactants, as a Possible Alternative to the Acute Fish Test

Martin Vaughan and Roger van Egmond

At present, the acute toxicity of chemicals to fish is most commonly estimated by means of a short-term test on juvenile or adult animals (OECD TG 203). Although, over the last few years, the numbers used have been reduced due to the implementation of the Three Rs (Reduction, Refinement and Replacement), significant numbers of fish are still used in acute toxicity tests. With the introduction of the new European Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) system, this number is likely to increase dramatically. The aim of this work was to test the acute toxicity of a number of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants to embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), over 48 hours, as a possible alternative to the standard 96-hour fish acute test. We measured the toxicities of 15 surfactants, and compared the results to previously generated adult D. rerio LC50 data (or other fish species, if these data were not available). Comparison of the LC50 data showed that embryos appear to be as sensitive to cationic and non-ionic surfactants as the adult fish, but possibly are more sensitive to anionic surfactants. Toxicity testing with the embryo test can be carried out more quickly than with the adult test, uses much less space and media, requires less effort, and therefore can be performed at a reduced cost. The embryo test may also uncover additional sub-lethal effects, although these were not observed for surfactants. The data presented here show that the 48-hour embryo test can be considered as a suitable alternative to the adult acute fish test for surfactants.
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