A Multi-faceted Approach to Achieving the Global Acceptance of Animal-free Research Methods

Jodie Melbourne, Patricia Bishop, Jeffrey Brown and Gilly Stoddart

In 2015, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd. was awarded the Lush Training Prize for its broad approach to education and training on the effective use of human-relevant, non-animal research techniques. The prize was awarded for work that included hosting workshops and webinars, initiating in-person training sessions and developing educational resources. The Consortium works closely with industry and regulatory agencies to identify and overcome barriers to the validation and use of alternatives to animal testing, by using an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of these methods. The Consortium's recent activities toward replacing tests on animals for nanomaterials, pesticides and medical devices, are described, as examples of projects with broad applicability aimed at large-scale regulatory change.
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Local Tolerance Testing Under REACH: Accepted Non-animal Methods Are Not on Equal Footing with Animal Tests

Ursula G. Sauer, Erin H. Hill, Rodger D. Curren, Susanne N. Kolle, Wera Teubner, Annette Mehling and Robert Landsiedel

In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required.

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Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing

Carol Barker-Treasure, Kevin Coll, Nathalie Belot, Chris Longmore, Karl Bygrave, Suzanne Avey and Richard Clothier

Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.
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A Campaign to End Animal Testing: Introducing the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd

Gilly Stoddart and Jeffrey Brown

The successful development and validation of non-animal techniques, or the analysis of existing data to satisfy regulatory requirements, provide no guarantee that this information will be used in place of animal experiments. In order to advocate for the replacement of animal-based testing requirements, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd (PISC) liaises with industry, regulatory and research agencies to establish and promote clear paths to validation and regulatory use of non-animal techniques. PISC and its members use an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of good scientific practices in place of testing on animals. Examples of how PISC and its members have applied this approach to minimise the use of animals for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation in the EU and testing of cosmetics on animals in India, are described.
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FRAME and the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution: Common Recommendations for Assessing Risks Posed by Chemicals under the EU REACH System

Robert D. Combes, Jennifer Dandrea and Michael Balls

This document discusses recommendations made by FRAME and the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (RCEP) with regard to the current European Commission proposals on the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) system for assessing the risks of chemicals to humans, wildlife and the environment. Of several common aims and recommendations, the two most important are: a) the greater use of non-animal testing methods, especially computational prediction methods (for example, [quantitative] structure–activity relationships, expert systems and biokinetic modelling) for prioritising chemicals for hazard assessment; and b) the greater use of intelligent exposure-based targeted risk assessment, with less emphasis being placed on tonnage-triggers. FRAME has produced a decision-tree testing scheme to illustrate the way in which these approaches could be used, together with in vitro test methods. This scheme has been slightly modified to take account of proposals subsequently made by the RCEP. In addition, FRAME points out that new and improved computational methods are needed through more coordinated research, and that these and existing methods need to be validated. The similarities between the independent publications of FRAME and the RCEP add weight to the recommendations that each have made concerning the implementation of the REACH system.
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A Scientific and Animal Welfare Assessment of the OECD Health Effects Test Guidelines for the Safety Testing of Chemicals Under the European Union REACH System

Robert D. Combes, Ian Gaunt and Michael Balls

We have assessed each of the OECD Health Effects Test Guidelines (TGs) that were included in an annex to the Internet consultation issued by the European Commission relating to the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) legislation for the testing of new and existing chemical substances. Each guideline has been analysed with respect to its design and its scientific and animal welfare implications, the extent to which it makes use of modern techniques, and its suitability to be used in the REACH system for the testing of large numbers of chemicals. The scientific basis of the test and its justification are considered, as well as the numbers of animals required, and the potential adverse effects on them. The prospects and possibilities for applying the Three Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) to each of the TGs are also discussed. We have proposed an overall testing strategy for how these TGs and other methods could best be deployed for chemicals testing, should it be necessary to fill data gaps. Certain TGs have been omitted from the strategy, when we have considered them to be unnecessary for chemicals testing. A series of recommendations has been made for improving the TGs with regard to both their scientific content and ways in which they could be better designed in relation to optimising the use of the animals concerned, and minimising adverse welfare consequences to them. Our investigations show that there is an urgent need to update the TGs to reflect modern techniques and methods, and to use current approaches for applying refinement strategies to improve the scientific and animal welfare aspects of the procedures used. Improvements can and should be made in all aspects of toxicity testing, from sample preparation, and animal housing, care and feeding, to dose formulation, test material administration, and the histopathological and clinical analysis of tissue samples. Opportunities for streamlining individual assays are very limited, but testing could be made more efficient by: a) only undertaking studies that provide relevant data; b) making greater use of screens and preliminary testing; c) applying some tests simultaneously to the same animals; d) using one sex; and e) eliminating redundant tests. In conclusion, it is clear that, as they stand, the OECD Health Effects TGs are unsuitable for use in the European Union REACH system, for which potentially very large numbers of laboratory animals will be needed for the testing of a very large number of chemicals.
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Intelligent Testing Strategies for Chemicals Testing — A Case of More Haste, Less Speed?

Robert Combes and Michael Balls

The prospects for using (Q)SAR modelling, read-across (chemical) and other non-animal approaches as part of integrated testing strategies for chemical risk assessment, within the framework of the EU REACH legislation, are considered. The potential advantages and limitations of (Q)SAR modelling and read-across methods for chemical regulatory risk assessment are reviewed. It is concluded that it would be premature to base a testing strategy on chemical-based computational modelling approaches, until such time as criteria to validate them for their reliability and relevance by using independent and transparent procedures, have been agreed. This is mainly because of inherent problems in validating and accepting (Q)SARs for regulatory use in ways that are analogous to those that have been developed and applied for in vitro tests. Until this issue has been resolved, it is recommended that testing strategies should be developed which comprise the integrated use of computational and read-across approaches. These should be applied in a cautious and judicious way, in association with available tissue culture methods, and in conjunction with metabolism and biokinetic studies. Such strategies should be intelligently applied by being driven by exposure information (based on bioavailability, not merely on production volume) and hazard information needs, in preference to a tick-box approach. In the meantime, there should be increased efforts to develop improved (Q)SARs, expert systems and new in vitro methods, and, in particular, ways to expedite their validation and acceptance must be found and prospectively agreed with all major stakeholders.
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Integrated Testing Strategies for Use in the EU REACH System

Christina Grindon, Robert Combes, Mark T.D. Cronin, David W. Roberts and John F. Garrod

Integrated testing strategies have been proposed to facilitate the process of chemicals risk assessment to fulfil the requirements of the proposed EU REACH system. Here, we present individual, decision- tree style, strategies for the eleven major toxicity endpoints of the REACH system, including human health effects and ecotoxicity. These strategies make maximum use of non-animal approaches to hazard identification, before resorting to traditional animal test methods. Each scheme: a) comprises a mixture of validated and non-validated assays (distinguished in the schemes); and b) decision points at key stages to allow the cessation of further testing, should it be possible to use the available information to classify and label and/or undertake risk assessment. The rationale and scientific justification for each of the schemes, with respect to the validation status of the tests involved and their individual advantages and limitations, will be discussed in detail in a series of future publications.
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In Vitro Tests within the REACH Information Strategies

Kimmo Louekari, Kirsi Sihvonen, Marko Kuittinen and Vibeke Sømnes

Tonnage-based information requirements are specified in the proposal on the regulation on the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) in the European Union. The hazard assessment for toxic endpoints should be performed by using a tiered approach, i.e. as an information strategy (IS), starting with an evaluation of all of the data already available, including animal in vivo and in vitro data, and human evidence and case reports, as well as data from (Quantitative)-Structure Activity Relationships ([Q]SARs) or read-across, before any further testing is suggested. To contribute to the implementation of the REACH system, the Nordic countries launched two projects: 1) a review of currently used testing strategies, including a comparison with the REACH requirements; and 2) the development of detailed ISs for skin and eye irritation/corrosion. The review showed that the ISs and classification criteria for the selected endpoints are inconsistent in many cases. In the classification criteria, human data and in vivo test results are usually the prerequisites. Other types of information, such as data from in vitro studies, can sometimes be used, but usually as supportive evidence only. This differs from the REACH ISs, where QSARs, read-across and in vitro testing are important elements. In the other part of the project, an IS for skin and eye irritation/corrosion was proposed. The strategy was “tested” by using four high production volume (HPV) chemicals: hydrogen peroxide, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), trivalent chromium, and diantimony trioxide, but only MTBE and trivalent chromium are dealt with in this paper. The “test” revealed that in vivo data, human case reports and physical-chemical data were available and could be used in the evaluation. Classification could be based on the proposed IS and the existing data in all cases, except for the eye irritation/corrosion of trivalent chromium. Weight-of-evidence analysis appeared to be a useful step in the ISs proposed, and including it in the REACH strategies should be considered. For these chemicals, few in vitro and (Q)SAR data were available — more of these data would be generated, if the relevant guidance and legislation on classification were updated.
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Integrated Decision-tree Testing Strategies for Environmental Toxicity With Respect to the Requirements of the EU REACH Legislation

Christina Grindon, Robert Combes, Mark T.D. Cronin, David W. Roberts and John Garrod

Liverpool John Moores University and FRAME recently conducted a research project sponsored by Defra on the status of alternatives to animal testing with regard to the European Union REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) system for safety testing and risk assessment of chemicals. The project covered all the main toxicity endpoints associated with the REACH system. This paper focuses on the prospects for using alternative methods (both in vitro and in silico) for environmental (aquatic) toxicity testing. The manuscript reviews tests based on fish cells and cell lines, fish embryos, lower organisms, and the many expert systems and QSARs for aquatic toxicity testing. Ways in which reduction and refinement measures can be used are also discussed, including the Upper Threshold Concentration — Step Down (UTC) approach, which has recently been retrospectively validated by ECVAM and subsequently endorsed by the ECVAM Scientific Advisory Committee (ESAC). It is hoped that the application of this approach could reduce the number of fish used in acute toxicity studies by around 65–70%. Decisiontree style integrated testing strategies are also proposed for acute aquatic toxicity and chronic toxicity (including bioaccumulation), followed by a number of recommendations for the future facilitation of aquatic toxicity testing with respect to environmental risk assessment.
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