primary cultures

/Tag:primary cultures

Retinal Müller Cell Culture

Tarja Toimela, Hanna Mäenpää and Hanna Tähti

A mini-review is presented of the current techniques for maintaining Müller cells in a culture. Within the retina, Müller cells are the predominant glial cells. These highly specialised cells extend over the entire neural retina. One of the most important of the various physiological functions of Müller cells is to regulate the balance of ions and neurotransmitters in the retina. Disturbance of these regulatory functions may lead to toxic effects on receptor and other neural cells in the neuroretina, and may be a common mechanism of clinical retinal neuropathy. The main excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina is glutamate. Müller cells regulate the amount of glutamate in the synaptic regions of the neural network in the retina. Accumulation of extra glutamate seems to be an important mechanism for initiating pathological changes leading to retinal damage. Many previous in vitro studies on the role of Müller cells in retinal toxicology have been based on the use of morphological and histochemical methods. In cell toxicology studies, it is important to develop culture techniques able to provide more cells for biochemical determinations.
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The Use of the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Coculture (IdMOC®) System for the Evaluation of Multiple Organ Toxicity

Albert P. Li

The application of the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IdMOC®) system in the evaluation of organ-specific toxicity is reviewed. In vitro approaches to predict in vivo toxicity have met with limited success, mainly because of the complexity of in vivo toxic responses. In vivo properties that are not well-represented in vitro include organ-specific responses, multiple organ metabolism, and multiple organ interactions. The IdMOC system has been developed to address these deficiencies. The system uses a ‘wells-within-a-well’ concept for the co-culturing of cells or tissue slices from different organs as physically separated (discrete) entities in the small inner wells. These inner wells are nevertheless interconnected (integrated) by overlying culture medium in the large outer containing well. The IdMOC system thereby models the in vivo situation, in which multiple organs are physically separated but interconnected by the systemic circulation, permitting multiple organ interactions. The IdMOC system, with either cells or tissue slices from multiple organs, can be used to evaluate cell type-specific or organ-specific toxicity.
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