oral epithelium

/Tag:oral epithelium

Microarray Assessment of Fibronectin, Collagen and Integrin Expression and the Role of Fibronectin–Collagen Coating in the Growth of Normal, SV40 T-antigen immortalised

Zsolt Sarang, Ylva Haig, Annette Hansson, Martin Vondracek, Lars Wärngård and Roland C. Grafström

Extracellular matrix proteins affect the growth and survival of epithelial tissues. Accordingly, surface coating with fibronectin and collagen is a common practice for promoting keratinocyte culture. In this study, the expression of fibronectin and collagen-related factors, including integrins, by normal (NOK), SV40 T-antigen-immortalised (SVpgC2a) and malignant (SqCC/Y1) human oral keratinocytes, under standardised, serum-free conditions, was investigated by using microarray analysis. Cell growth was also studied in the presence and absence of a matrix consisting of human fibronectin and bovine collagen type I (FN–COL). Fibronectin transcripts were abundant in all cells, whereas 16 of 29 collagen chains and 14 of 24 integrin subunits were variably detected. With regard to both the expression level and the number of transcripts, higher collagen and lower integrin expression was observed in SVpgC2a cells than in NOKs and SqCC/Y1 cells. The cell types differed with regard to colony-forming efficiency and the rate and kinetics of growth at high cell density. For all cell types, FN–COL coating consistently stimulated cell migration, without influencing growth in mass culture or clonal density. The results demonstrate the transcription of genes associated with the formation and function of fibronectin and collagen in oral epithelium, and variably altered expression patterns in transformed states, and show that keratinocyte lines can be successfully transferred without the stimulus from extracellular FN–COL.
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Modelling of Normal and Premalignant Oral Tissue by using the Immortalised Cell Line, SVpgC2a: A Review of the Value of the Model

Claudia A. Staab, Martin Vondracek, Hipolito Custodio, Katarina Johansson, Jan Anders Nilsson, Peter Morgan, Jan-Olov Höög, Ian Cotgreave and Roland C. Grafström

Normal oral keratinocytes (NOKs), and a Simian virus 40 T-antigen-immortalised oral keratinocyte line termed SVpgC2a, were cultured in an effort to model the human oral epithelium in vitro, including normal and dysplastic tissue. Monolayer and organotypic cultures of NOKs and SVpgC2a were successfully established in a standardised serum-free medium with high levels of amino acids, by using regular tissue culture plastic for monolayers and collagen gels containing oral fibroblasts as the base for generating tissue equivalents. NOKs express many characteristics of normal tissue, including those associated with terminal squamous differentiation. After > 150 passages, SVpgC2a cells retained an immortal, nontumourigenic phenotype that, relative to NOKs, was associated with aberrant morphology, enhanced proliferation, deficiency in terminal differentiation, proneness to apoptosis, and variably altered expression of structural epithelial markers. Transcript and protein profiling, as well as activity assays, demonstrated the expression of multiple xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes in SVpgC2a cells, some of which were higher in comparison to NOKs. A generally preserved, or even activated, ability for xenobiotic metabolism in longterm cultures of SVpgC2a cells indicated that this cell line could be useful in safety testing protocols — for example, in the development of consumer products in the oral health care field. However, SVpgC2a cells displayed some features reminiscent of a severe oral dysplasia, implying that this cell line could also to some extent serve as a model of a premalignant oral epithelium
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The Application of Normal, SV40 T-antigen-immortalised and Tumour-derived Oral Keratinocytes, under Serum-free Conditions, to the Study of the Probability of Cancer Progression as a Result of Environmental Exposure to Chemicals

Rebecca Ceder, Marina Merne, Claudia A. Staab, Jan Anders Nilsson, Jan-Olov Höög, Dirk Dressler, Karin Engelhart and Roland C. Grafström

In vitro models are currently not considered to be suitable replacements for animals in experiments to assess the multiple factors that underlie the development of cancer as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals. An evaluation was conducted on the potential use of normal keratinocytes, the SV40 T-antigen-immortalised keratinocyte cell line, SVpgC2a, and the carcinoma cell line, SqCC/Y1, alone and in combination, and under standardised serum-free culture conditions, to study oral cancer progression. In addition, features considered to be central to cancer development as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals, were analysed. Genomic expression, and enzymatic and functional data from the cell lines reflected many aspects of the transition of normal tissue epithelium, via dysplasia, to full malignancy. The composite cell line model develops aberrances in proliferation, terminal differentiation and apoptosis, in a similar manner to oral cancer progression in vivo. Transcript and protein profiling links aberrations in multiple gene ontologies, molecular networks and tumour biomarker genes (some proposed previously, and some new) in oral carcinoma development. Typical specific changes include the loss of tumour-suppressor p53 function and of sensitivity to retinoids. Environmental agents associated with the aetiology of oral cancer differ in their requirements for metabolic activation, and cause toxic effects to cells in both the normal and the transformed states. The results suggest that the model might be useful for studies on the sensitivity of cells to chemicals at different stages of cancer progression, including many aspects of the integrated roles of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Overall, the properties of the SVpgC2a and SqCC/Y1 cell lines, relative to normal epithelial cells in monolayer or organotypic culture, support their potential applicability to mechanistic studies on cancer risk factors, including, in particular, the definition of critical toxicity effects and dose–effect relationships.
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