A Multi-faceted Approach to Achieving the Global Acceptance of Animal-free Research Methods

Jodie Melbourne, Patricia Bishop, Jeffrey Brown and Gilly Stoddart

In 2015, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd. was awarded the Lush Training Prize for its broad approach to education and training on the effective use of human-relevant, non-animal research techniques. The prize was awarded for work that included hosting workshops and webinars, initiating in-person training sessions and developing educational resources. The Consortium works closely with industry and regulatory agencies to identify and overcome barriers to the validation and use of alternatives to animal testing, by using an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of these methods. The Consortium's recent activities toward replacing tests on animals for nanomaterials, pesticides and medical devices, are described, as examples of projects with broad applicability aimed at large-scale regulatory change.
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Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing

Carol Barker-Treasure, Kevin Coll, Nathalie Belot, Chris Longmore, Karl Bygrave, Suzanne Avey and Richard Clothier

Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.
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A Campaign to End Animal Testing: Introducing the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd

Gilly Stoddart and Jeffrey Brown

The successful development and validation of non-animal techniques, or the analysis of existing data to satisfy regulatory requirements, provide no guarantee that this information will be used in place of animal experiments. In order to advocate for the replacement of animal-based testing requirements, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd (PISC) liaises with industry, regulatory and research agencies to establish and promote clear paths to validation and regulatory use of non-animal techniques. PISC and its members use an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of good scientific practices in place of testing on animals. Examples of how PISC and its members have applied this approach to minimise the use of animals for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation in the EU and testing of cosmetics on animals in India, are described.
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A Critical Assessment of the OECD Collaborative Study to Validate the Uterotrophic Assay for the Detection of Oestrogenic and Anti-oestrogenic Chemicals

Robert D. Combes

The design and execution of a recently completed validation study on the rat uterotrophic assay for detecting oestrogens and anti-oestrogens, managed by the OECD, are critically assessed with respect to internationally agreed criteria for the validation of new in vitro and in vivo toxicity test methods. It is concluded that, while the design of the study did not take account of several important criteria for validation, the uterotrophic assay appears to reliably detect the strong and weak oestrogenic substances used in the study, which act via binding to the oestrogen receptor in vivo. However, the reliability of the assay has not been substantiated for detecting anti-oestrogens that act as antagonists, due to the involvement of an insufficient number of experiments and test chemicals. Moreover, the data do not permit an assessment of the accuracy of the prediction of oestrogenicity, and the protocols have not been sufficiently optimised with regard to controlling variables. This problem has been exacerbated by a wish to introduce as much flexibility as possible into the protocols during the formal validation phase of the study, rather than during a separate prevalidation stage. In addition, the choice between surgically treated and/or immature animals, and details of housing and husbandry conditions that are necessary for increasing the sensitivity and efficiency of the assay, need to be clarified. The assay also lacks a well-defined prediction model by which the overall relevance of the data to toxicity, and especially to human hazard, can be assessed, and no performance criteria have been established. The results of this analysis of the study indicate that it would be premature to produce an OECD test guideline for the uterotrophic assay at this time, before some of the above issues have been satisfactorily resolved.
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Peer Review of Validation Studies: An Assessment of the Role of the OECD by Reference to the Validation of the Uterotrophic Assay for Endocrine Disruptors

Robert D. Combes

The involvement of the OECD in managing the validation of the rat uterotrophic assay for endocrine disruptors, and in organising the peer review of the results of this study, has been assessed and compared with the many conclusions and recommendations in several published reports of international workshops on validation, and information in guidance documents, produced by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the US Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the OECD itself. It is concluded that the OECD has not followed the recommendations for full transparency and independence of the peer-review process. This is based on the fact that it has published a draft guidance document that differs from the report of a recent OECD workshop on validation, in such a way as to give the OECD the flexibility to fully control the peerreview process and, in so doing, to avoid full transparency. Comparison of the timing of the organisation of workshops by the OECD and the progression of the validation study, together with the fact that a draft test guideline for the assay was written before completion of the peer review, suggest that the OECD has given a higher priority to the expedition of the validation and regulatory acceptance of the uterotrophic assay than it has to good scientific and logistical practice. This severely undermines its credibility in the validation process, so, in order for the OECD to be rightly perceived as an honest broker, it is recommended that the OECD should play no role in the validation of new or revised tests, until after they have been successfully validated, peer reviewed, and endorsed by the appropriate authorities, and are ready for test guideline development. With regard to the on-going OECD validation studies of other in vivo assays for endocrine disruptors, the OECD should take immediate steps to ensure full independence and transparency of their peer review.
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Status and Prospects of In Vitro Tests in Risk Assessment

Kimmo Louekari

According to the new chemicals policy of the European Union (EU), most chemicals, i.e. the 20,000 chemicals manufactured or imported at 1–10 tons annually, should be tested primarily by using in vitro methods. Also, for other chemicals, the use of in vitro methods is encouraged in the testing strategies given in the draft EU legislation. However, the validation and international acceptance of in vitro tests has been slow. Only recently has the OECD approved four new in vitro test methods, validated by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. An analysis of ten randomly selected risk assessment reports of the EU Existing Chemicals Risk Assessment Programme showed that in vitro studies, for example, on cytotoxicity to different cell cultures, cell transformation, metabolism and skin penetration (a total of 115 studies) were used for the assessments. Key metabolic pathways and mechanisms of toxicity have been elucidated, for some chemicals, by using in vitro methods. On the other hand, the results of in vitro studies were regarded as secondary or unreliable in some cases. For several toxic endpoints, in vitro methods will probably serve as screening tools and for mechanistic studies, while target organ toxicity or physiologically regulated adverse effects caused by long-term exposure are difficult to observe without the use of animal models.
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The Need for a Formal Invalidation Process for Animal and Non-animal Tests

Michael Balls and Robert Combes

A plethora of regulations require that many chemicals and chemical products are tested for efficacy and/or toxicity. When permitted to operate effectively and without bias, the ECVAM/ICCVAM/OECD validation process can be used to independently establish that new animal and non-animal test procedures are sufficiently relevant and reliable for their stated purposes and should be considered for regulatory use. However, the validation process is under threat because of vested interests of various kinds, and it is clear that many currently-accepted animal tests and candidate animal and non-animal tests do not, and could never, meet the agreed criteria for necessity, test development, prevalidation, validation and acceptance. We therefore need an invalidation process to parallel and protect the validation process, so that such methods could be independently reviewed and declared irrelevant and/or unreliable for their claimed purposes. An additional advantage of such a process would be that valuable resources would no longer be wasted in attempts to secure the acceptance of inherently inadequate tests.
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The OECD Health Effects Test Guidelines: A Challenge to the Sincerity of Commitment to the Three Rs

Various authors

When, in 2002, a report on Alternative (Non-animal) Methods for Chemicals Testing: Current Status and Future Prospects was published by the European Centre for Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and the ECVAM Working Group on Chemicals,1 in response to the European Commission (EC) White Paper on a Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy,2 it was suggested that a similar review should be conducted on the current status and future prospects of the OECD and European Union (EU) test guidelines (TGs) for the animal toxicity tests likely to be needed in implementing the new policy.
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ECVAM’s Approach to Intellectual Property Rights in the Validation of Alternative Methods

Jens P. Linge and Thomas Hartung

In this article, we discuss how intellectual property rights affect the validation of alternative methods at ECVAM. We point out recent cases and summarise relevant EU and OECD documents. Finally, we discuss guidelines for dealing with intellectual property rights during the validation of alternative methods at ECVAM.
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