Interleukin-1α and Interleukin-8 Release by Human Keratinocyte Cell Culture Treated with Surfactants

Michio Shibata, Takanari Tsuda, Hiroshi Itagaki, Shinobu Kato,
Toshiaki Kobayashi, Hideyuki Ichikawa and Yoshihiro Morikawa

The effects of four cosmetic surfactants on interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-8 release from human keratinocytes were studied to investigate the feasibility of using these effects for the prediction of the irritation potential of chemicals. After exposure of cells to surfactants, the amounts of IL-1α and IL-8 released into culture medium were measured by ELISA. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by using the neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity assay. Cytokine release was increased 7–15 times by sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), laurtrimonium chloride, cocamidopropyl betaine (CPB) and Oleth-5 at cytotoxic concentrations. IL-8 release was increased 3–4 times by SLS, CPB and Oleth-5 at subcytotoxic concentrations. After exposure to SLS, IL-1α was released within 1 hour, suggesting that IL-1α release is associated with membrane damage, whereas IL-8 release continued for 24 hours, suggesting that IL-8 was produced within the cells. Cytotoxicity tests and IL-8 release assays were also performed on seven other surfactants. The results show that moderate irritants CPB and PEG-4 dioleate, which have weak cytotoxic effects, significantly increased IL-8 release from human keratinocytes. It is suggested that measurement of IL-8 release is useful for predicting the irritation potential of chemicals which cannot be detected by using the NRU cytotoxicity assay.
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