in vitro toxicity

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Short-term Toxicity of Various Pharmacological Agents on the In Vitro Nitrification Process in a Simple Closed Aquatic System

Herman Nimenya, Annie Delaunois, Duc La Duong, Serge Bloden, Jean Defour, Baudouin Nicks and Michel Ansay

During the treatment of fish diseases, drugs which inhibit the nitrification process can cause acute ammonia toxicity. The same phenomenon can occur when fish are put into a tank without active cultures of nitrifying bacteria. The purpose of this study was to quantify the inhibitory effects of 15 pharmacological agents, which are often used as therapeutic agents in ichthyopathology, on ammonia removal and nitrate production in a simple closed aquatic system. The experiments were conducted in polyethylene bags containing activated biofilters and synthetic water solutions, held in a water bath. Ammonia was added to initiate the nitrification process, and graded concentrations of various pharmacological agents were added. The effects of the pharmacological agents on in vitro nitrification were assessed by monitoring ammonia and nitrate concentrations compared to controls with no added agents, for 24 hours. Graded concentrations of ampicillin (Albipen®), chloramine T, enrofloxacin (Baytril®), erythromycin, levamisole, methylene blue and polymyxin B induced dose-dependent inhibitions of ammonia removal and nitrate production. The corresponding linear regression curves showed high correlation coefficients and were highly significant (p < 0.05). The addition of chloramphenicol, copper (II) sulphate, kanamycin disulphate, malachite green, neomycin sulphate, potassium penicillin G, tetracycline and a mixture of trimethoprim and sulphadoxin (DuoprimTM) had no significant effects on the nitrification process. A significant dose-related inhibition of nitrate production, but not of ammonia oxidation, was observed with enrofloxacin. The significant correlation (r = 0.940; p < 0.001) between the degrees of inhibition of ammonia oxidation and nitrate production for the various inhibitory pharmacological agents has also been calculated, with a view to validating this method. The data presented suggest that separate tank facilities for hospitalisation or quarantine are necessary when treating diseased fish with ampicillin, enrofloxacin, chloramine T, erythromycin, levamisole, methylene blue or polymyxin B, in order to avoid ammonia poisoning.[/fusion_toggle] [/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column row_column_index="1_2" type="1_1" background_position="left top" background_color="" border_size="" border_color="" border_style="solid" spacing="yes" background_image="" background_repeat="no-repeat" padding="" margin_top="0px" margin_bottom="0px" class="" id="" animation_type="" animation_speed="0.3" animation_direction="left" hide_on_mobile="no" center_content="no" min_height="none"][s2If current_user_cannot(access_s2member_level0)] You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.[/s2If]

Time-courses of Growth Inhibition and Recovery for Narcotic Chemicals and 2,6-Dinitrophenol in Pollen Suspensions of Nicotiana sylvestris

Stefan Sichtling, Hartmut Quader and Udo Kristen

In a previous structure-activity analysis of chlorophenol and nitrophenol toxicity, the pollen tube growth test was shown to discriminate between oxidative uncoupling and narcotic mechanisms of action. To examine the suitability of the use of pollen tubes in screening for narcotic chemicals, we used tobacco pollen suspensions and performed time-course experiments on pollen tube growth inhibition and recovery after exposure to 1-butanol, 2-chloroaniline, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,6-dinitrophenol, during pollen culture for 22 hours. After exposure to the chemicals for 2 hours, pollen tubes exposed to 1-butanol and 2,6-dinitrophenol were able to recover, whereas recovery was poor after exposure to 2-chloroaniline and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Dilution experiments to remove the narcotics from the pollen suspension indicated that 2-chloroaniline and 2,4-dichlorophenol accumulated in the pollen grain wall, presumably due to their high octanol/water partition coefficients. Therefore, we suggest that the pollen tube growth test is not suitable for correctly predicting the narcotic potencies of highly lipophilic compounds. In the presence of 1-butanol, pollen grains did not germinate, but became characteristically enlarged. This observation suggests that 1-butanol inhibits the establishment of the cell polarity necessary for initiating pollen tube outgrowth.
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Validation Successes: Chemicals

Horst Spielmann and Manfred Liebsch

The ECVAM validation concept, which was defined at two validation workshops held in Amden (Switzerland) in 1990 and 1994, and which takes into account the essential elements of prevalidation and biostatistically defined prediction models, has been officially accepted by European Union (EU) Member States, by the Federal regulatory agencies of the USA, and by the OECD. The ECVAM validation concept was introduced into the ongoing ECVAM/COLIPA validation study of in vitro phototoxicity tests, which ended successfully in 1998. The 3T3 neutral red uptake in vitro phototoxicity test was the first experimentally validated in vitro toxicity test recommended for regulatory purposes by the ECVAM Scientific Advisory Committee (ESAC). It was accepted by the EU into the legislation for chemicals in the year 2000. From 1996 to 1998, two in vitro skin corrosivity tests were successfully validated by ECVAM, and they were also officially accepted into the EU regulations for chemicals in the year 2000. Meanwhile, in 2002, the OECD Test Guidelines Programme is considering the worldwide acceptance of the validated in vitro phototoxicity and corrosivity tests. Finally, from 1997 to 2000, an ECVAM validation study on three in vitro embryotoxicity tests was successfully completed. Therefore, the three in vitro embryotoxicity tests, the whole embryo culture (WEC) test on rat embryos, the micromass (MM) test on limb bud cells of mouse embryos, and the embryonic stem cell test (EST) including a permanent embryonic mouse stem cell line, are considered to be scientifically valid and appropriate for routine use in laboratories of the European pharmaceutical and chemicals industries.
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The Necessity of Biokinetic Information in the Interpretation of In Vitro Toxicity Data

Bas J. Blaauboer

Data derived from in vitro toxicity studies are not directly applicable in an assessment of the toxicity of compounds in intact organisms. The major limitation is the lack of knowledge of biokinetic behaviour in vivo. Since the toxicity of a compound will be determined by the critical concentration (or other dose metric) of the critical compound (or a metabolite thereof) at the critical site of toxic action, biokinetic behaviour must be taken into account. Possibilities of biokinetic modelling on the basis of in vitro and other non-animal data are discussed, and the application of the results in hazard and riskassessment schedules is considered.
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The Registry of Cytotoxicity: Toxicity Testing in Cell Cultures to Predict Acute Toxicity (LD50) and to Reduce Testing in Animals1

Willi Halle

This is a translation of a report on the Registry of Cytotoxicity (RC), originally published in German in 1998. The report presented an advanced in vitro method, which can significantly reduce the number of animals needed for the toxicity testing of a broad range of compounds/xenobiotics. With the RC method, it was possible to predict the oral or intravenous acute toxicity (LD50) — which is a regulatory requirement for newly developed pharmaceuticals and industrial and household chemicals — from the cytotoxicity data (mean IC50 = IC50X) obtained with mammalian cells. The RC method can be used before the in vivo test, and it does not pose any additional harm or suffering to laboratory animals. The RC method is of broad practical use: it can be applied, for example, in the pharmaceutical industry or the chemical industry in regulatory testing or in research. It is ready for validation, and could then be incorporated into OECD guidelines, thus reducing the total number of animals needed for regulatory toxicity testing. The RC method is based on the comparison of the IC50X values and the LD50 values by using linear regression analysis. With the RC method, it was possible to predict, within a predefined dose range, the acute oral LD50 for 252 of 347 xenobiotics, and the intravenous LD50 for rats and/or mice for 117 of 150 xenobiotics. Comparative studies showed that these results are highly reproducible.
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The FRAME Alternatives Laboratory Database. 1. In Vitro Basal Cytotoxicity determined by the Kenacid Blue Total Protein Assay

Richard Clothier, Elke Gottschalg, Silvia Casati and Michael Balls

A database of over 280 chemicals has been compiled by using a mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblast-like cell line in exponential growth, exposed to chemicals for 72 hours in a 96-well tissue culture plate format, and determining cell number via the Kenacid blue (KB) assay for total protein. Ranking the chemicals according to their basal cytotoxicity, expressed as the concentration (mM) that inhibits increase in total cellular protein over 72 hours by 50% (the ID50 value) shows a wide range of ID50 values, from 0.00003mM to 10,096mM. This information includes the results for MEIC chemicals 1–50, and we have now added basal cytotoxicity data for 23 of the next 25 MEIC chemicals. When the neutral red uptake (NRU) assay was performed with the same cell cultures, before the KB assay, very similar indications of basal cytotoxicity were obtained. Comparisons between the results with 3T3-L1 cells and with a human fibroblast-like cell line, BCL-D1 showed a significant difference in order of magnitude of the ID50 value for only 5 of 52 chemicals. However, there was a difference in ID50 value of more than one order of magnitude for 8 of 24 chemicals tested with an undifferentiated teratocarcinoma cell line, F9.
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The Use of the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Coculture (IdMOC®) System for the Evaluation of Multiple Organ Toxicity

Albert P. Li

The application of the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IdMOC®) system in the evaluation of organ-specific toxicity is reviewed. In vitro approaches to predict in vivo toxicity have met with limited success, mainly because of the complexity of in vivo toxic responses. In vivo properties that are not well-represented in vitro include organ-specific responses, multiple organ metabolism, and multiple organ interactions. The IdMOC system has been developed to address these deficiencies. The system uses a ‘wells-within-a-well’ concept for the co-culturing of cells or tissue slices from different organs as physically separated (discrete) entities in the small inner wells. These inner wells are nevertheless interconnected (integrated) by overlying culture medium in the large outer containing well. The IdMOC system thereby models the in vivo situation, in which multiple organs are physically separated but interconnected by the systemic circulation, permitting multiple organ interactions. The IdMOC system, with either cells or tissue slices from multiple organs, can be used to evaluate cell type-specific or organ-specific toxicity.
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Refinement and Optimisation of the Rat CFU-GM Assay to Incorporate the Use of Cryopreserved Bone-marrow Cells for In Vitro Toxicology Applications

Augusto Pessina, Arianna Bonomi, Carolina Baglio, Loredana Cavicchini and Laura Gribaldo

The colony-forming unit-granulocyte–macrophage (CFU-GM) assay has been validated for testing drug haematotoxicity (with both mouse bone-marrow and human cord blood cells) and for predicting in vivo human Maximal Tolerated Dose (MTD) values by extrapolating in vivo data on mouse toxicity. The rat CFU-GM assay is widely used for its capability to evaluate in vitro haematotoxicity, but no standardised procedure suitable for data comparison has been developed. A validated rat CFU-GM assay is needed for many reasons — not least because the rat is the most commonly-used species for the in vivotesting of toxicants. This report describes the refinement and optimisation of a standardised protocol for
entering into the prevalidation phase of test development. The sensitivity of rat progenitors to granulocyte– macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), the correlation between the number of cells seeded and the number of colonies obtained, the role of mesenchymal cells on CFU-GM proliferation and the performance of the assay, and the effects of using different types of plastic dishes and sources of cytokines, are described. A standard operating procedure (SOP) based on the use of cryopreserved progenitors has been generated, to be applied to the in vitro toxicity testing of compounds. This SOP dramatically reduces the number of rats used and increases the homogeneity of the data obtained.
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Prevalidation of the Rat CFU-GM Assay for In Vitro Toxicology Applications

Augusto Pessina, Arianna Bonomi, Loredana Cavicchini, Beatriz Albella, Laura Cerrato, Dominique Parent-Massin, Yann Sibiril, Ralph Parchment, Holger Behrsing, Paolo Verderio, Sara Pizzamiglio, Manuela Giangreco, Carolina Baglio, Valentina Coccè, Francesca Sisto and Laura Gribaldo

In vitro haematotoxicity assays are thought to have the potential to significantly reduce and refine the use of animals for haematotoxicity testing. These assays are used successfully in all types of studies — however, their use is not so common in human toxicology studies in the preclinical setting, as they are not required for regulatory testing in this case. Furthermore, these assays could play a key role in bridging the gap between preclinical toxicology studies in animal models and clinical investigations. In previous studies, the Colony Forming Unit-Granulocyte Macrophage (CFU-GM) assay has been validated for testing drug haematotoxicity (with both mouse bone-marrow and human cord blood) and for predicting the in vivo human maximal tolerated dose (MTD) by adjusting in vivo data on mouse toxicity. Recently, a Colony Forming Unit-Megakaryocyte (CFU-MK) assay has also been prevalidated for testing drug toxicity toward megakaryocytes. The rat CFU-GM assay has been used by many researchers for its ability to evaluate in vitrohaematotoxicity. Although it is not yet available, a standardised procedure for data comparison could be very important, since the rat is the most widely-used species for the in vivo testing of toxicants. This report presents the results of the prevalidation study developed to analyse the intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory variability of a standardised operating procedure for this assay and its performance for the in vitro determination of the inhibitory concentration (IC) values of drugs on rat myeloid progenitors (CFU-GM). The results demonstrate that the CFU-GM assay can be performed with cryopreserved rat bone-marrow cells (rBMC). The assay represents a useful tool for evaluating the toxicity of a compound, in terms of both relative toxicity (when different molecules are compared) and the prediction of the degree of in vivo toxicity. The use of this assay could greatly reduce the number of rats used in experimental procedures, and could also contribute to the accumulation of more toxicity data on compounds to be registered according to the criteria established by the European Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) programme.
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