ECVAM

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Non-animal Tests for Evaluating the Toxicity of Solid Xenobiotics

Bice Fubini, Ann E. Aust, Robert E. Bolton, Paul J.A. Borm, Joachim Bruch, Gabriela Ciapetti, Ken Donaldson, Zoé Elias, Julie Gold, Marie Claude Jaurand, Agnes B. Kane, Dominique Lison and
Hartwig Muhle

This is the report of the thirtieth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures.
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2017-01-09T06:26:46+00:00 Tags: , , |

Alternative Approaches and Tests in Ecotoxicology: A Review of the Present Position and the Prospects for Change, Taking into Account ECVAM’s Duties, Topic Selection and Test Criteria

Colin H. Walker

The objectives of this review are to summarise the present position concerning the use of vertebrates in ecotoxicity testing, giving particular attention to tests that cause suffering, and to discuss in some detail, alternatives to them, and the prospects for change. The report has been written with the objectives of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) in mind, and some recommendations for action have been made at the end of the discussion section. The first section of the review describes the present requirements within the European Union for the ecotoxicity testing of industrial chemicals in general, and for pesticides in particular, and the very limited documentation of the tests that are actually carried out. The next four sections describe the many different assays and systems used to evaluate the harmful effects of chemicals on free-living organisms and natural populations, and the extent to which they might be suitable alternatives to vertebrate toxicity tests that cause suffering. Attention is drawn to certain assays and strategies that can already be used as satisfactory alternatives, and thus provide the basis for short-term change. Included here are nondestructive assays on vertebrates which are available for certain types of chemicals, and which provide a direct and relatively uncomplicated approach to the problem. Other approaches are described which still require development, but hold considerable promise in the longer term. The growth of knowledge in the broad field of biochemical toxicology and the development of related technologies should lead to the development of better and more-sophisticated alternatives in the future. In vitro assays employing vertebrate cell systems are of particular interest here. The last section of the review deals with conclusions and recommendations. The recommendations are made with a view to the activities and responsibilities of ECVAM.
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Validation of Alternative Methods for the Potency Testing of Vaccines

Coenraad Hendriksen, Jean-Marc Spieser, Arnoud Akkermans, Michael Balls, Lukas Bruckner, Klaus Cussler, Arnold Daas, Johan Descamps, Roland Dobbelaer, Julia Fentem, Marlies Halder, Margot van der Kamp, Roger Lucken, Julie Milstien, Dorothea Sesardic, Donald Straughan and Antonio Valadares

This is the report of the thirty-first of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures. It was decided that this would be best achieved by the organisation of ECVAM workshops on specific topics, at which small groups of invited experts would review the current status of various types of in vitro tests and their potential uses, and make recommendations about the best ways forward (1).
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2017-01-09T06:26:48+00:00 Tags: , , |

The Availability of Human Tissue for Biomedical Research

Robert Anderson, Michael O’Hare, Michael Balls, Madeleine Brady, Diana Brahams, Avril Burt, Christophe Chesné, Robert Combes, Ashley Dennison, Bernward Garthoff, Gabrielle Hawksworth, Eric Kalter, Ann Lechat, David Mayer, Vera Rogiers, Dariusz Sladowski, Jacqueline Southee, Jacki Trafford, Jan van der Valk and Anne-Marie van Zeller

This is the report of the thirty-second of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures.
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2017-01-09T06:26:48+00:00 Tags: , , |

Alternatives to the Use of Animals in Higher Education

Jan van der Valk, David Dewhurst, Ian Hughes, Jeffrey Atkinson, Jonathan Balcombe, Hans Braun, Karin Gabrielson, Franz Gruber, Jeremy Miles, Jan Nab, Jason Nardi, Henk van Wilgenburg, Ursula Zinko and Joanne Zurlo

This is the report of the thirty-third of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals.
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2017-01-09T06:26:50+00:00 Tags: , , |

Eye Irritation Testing: The Way Forward

Michael Balls, Ninna Berg, Leon H. Bruner, Rodger D. Curren, Odile de Silva, Lesley K. Earl, David J. Esdaile, Julia H. Fentem, Manfred Liebsch, Yasuo Ohno, Menk K. Prinsen, Horst Spielmann and Andrew P. Worth

This is the report of the thirty-fourth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures.
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2017-01-09T06:26:50+00:00 Tags: , , |

The Potential Use of Non-invasive Methods in the Safety Assessment of Cosmetic Products

Vera Rogiers, Michael Balls, David Basketter, Enzo Berardesca, Christopher Edwards, Peter Elsner, Joachim Ennen, Jean Luc Lévêque, Marie Lóden, Philippe Masson, José Parra, Marc Paye, Gérald Piérard, Luis Rodrigues, Hans Schaefer, David Salter and Valérie Zuang

This is the report of the thirty-sixth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals.
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2017-01-09T06:26:59+00:00 Tags: , |

The Principles of Good Laboratory Practice: Application to In Vitro Toxicology Studies

Robin Cooper-Hannan, John W. Harbell, Sandra Coecke, Michael Balls, Gerard Bowe, Miroslav Cervinka, Richard Clothier, Frauke Hermann, Lynn K. Klahm, Jan de Lange, Manfred Liebsch and Philippe Vanparys

This is the report of the thirty-seventh of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals.
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2017-01-09T06:26:59+00:00 Tags: , , |