An evaluation is presented of past experience of dialogue and collaboration between ECVAM and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) over the last nine years. Lessons learnt from the viewpoint of EFPIA company representatives are given. Also, proposals for the future ECVAM approach are made, such as support for other research areas for new methods to be validated, giving realistic statements to ECVAM's European Union and external customers, and being open to any new technology development that might help in opening and establishing new alternative avenues. Finally, the need for proper publications on the implementation of alternatives is recommended, for example, through the existing national platforms and their umbrella organisation, ecopa.
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