Metabolic Activity in Primary Cultures of Fish Hepatocytes

Helmut Segner and Jean-Pierre Cravedi

In aquatic toxicology, isolated liver cells from fish can be used as a tool to generate initial information on the hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics, and on the mechanisms of xenobiotic activation or deactivation. This isolation of teleost liver cells is achieved by enzymic dissociation, and monolayer cultures of fish hepatocytes in serum-free medium maintain good viability for 3–8 days. During in vitro culture, fish liver cells express stable levels of phase I and phase II enzymes, such as cytochrome P4501A or glutathione S-transferase, and the cells show an induction of biotransformation enzymes after exposure to xenobiotics. The xenobiotic metabolite pattern produced by fish hepatocytes in vitro is generally similar to that observed in vivo. Limitations to more-intensive application of cultured fish hepatocytes as a screen in aquatic hazard assessment are partly due to the rather limited scope of existing studies, i.e. the focus on one particular species (rainbow trout), and on one particular biotransformation enzyme (cytochrome P4501A), as well as a lack of comparative in vitro/in vivo studies.
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Development of an In Vitro Test Battery for the Estimation of Acute Human Systemic Toxicity: An Outline of the EDIT Project

Cecilia Clemedson, Marika Nordin-Andersson, Henning F. Bjerregaard, Jørgen Clausen, Anna Forsby, Helena Gustafsson, Ulrika Hansson, Boris Isomaa, Carsten Jørgensen, Ada Kolman, Natalia Kotova, Gunter Krause, Udo Kristen, Kalle Kurppa, Lennart Romert and Ellen Scheers

The aim of the Evaluation-guided Development of New In Vitro Test Batteries (EDIT) multicentre programme is to establish and validate in vitro tests relevant to toxicokinetics and for organ-specific toxicity, to be incorporated into optimal test batteries for the estimation of human acute systemic toxicity. The scientific basis of EDIT is the good prediction of human acute toxicity obtained with three human cell line tests (R2 = 0.77), in the Multicentre Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC) programme. However, the results from the MEIC study indicated that at least two other types of in vitro test ought to be added to the existing test battery to improve the prediction of human acute systemic toxicity - to determine key kinetic events (such as biotransformation and passage through biological barriers), and to predict crucial organ-specific mechanisms not covered by the tests in the MEIC battery. The EDIT programme will be a case-by-case project, but the establishment and validation of new tests will be carried through by a common, step-wise procedure. The Scientific Committee of the EDIT programme defines the need for a specific set of toxicity or toxicokinetic data. Laboratories are then invited to perform the defined tests in order to provide the "missing" data for the EDIT reference chemicals. The results obtained will be evaluated against the MEMO (the MEIC Monograph programme) database, i.e. against human acute systemic lethal and toxicity data. The aim of the round-table discussions at the 19th Scandinavian Society for Cell Toxicology (SSCT) workshop, held in Ringsted, Denmark on 6-9 September 2001, was to identify which tests are the most important for inclusion in the MEIC battery, i.e. which types of tests the EDIT programme should focus on. It was proposed that it is important to include in vitro methods for various kinetic events, such as biotransformation, absorption in the gut, passage across the blood-brain barrier, distribution volumes, protein binding, and renal clearance/accumulation. Models for target organ toxicity were also discussed. Because several of the outlier chemicals (paracetamol, digoxin, malathion, nicotine, paraquat, atropine and
potassium cyanide) in the MEIC in vivo-in vitro evaluation have a neurotoxic potential, it was proposed that
the development within the EDIT target organ programme should initially be focused on the nervous system.
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Mechanistically-based QSARs to Describe Metabolic Constants in Mammals

Alessandra Pirovano, Mark A.J. Huijbregts, Ad M.J. Ragas, Karin Veltman1 and A. Jan Hendriks

Biotransformation is one of the processes which influence the bioaccumulation of chemicals. The enzymatic action of metabolism involves two processes, i.e. the binding of the substrate to the enzyme followed by a catalytic reaction, which are described by the Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) and the maximum rate (Vmax). Here, we developed Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships (QSARs) for Log(1/Km) and LogVmax for substrates of four enzyme classes. We focused on oxidations catalysed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) in mammals. The chemicals investigated were xenobiotics, including alcohols, aldehydes, pesticides and drugs. We applied general linear models for this purpose, employing descriptors related to partitioning, geometric characteristics, and electronic properties of the substrates, which can be interpreted mechanistically. The explained variance of the QSARs varied between 20% and 70%, and it was larger for Log(1/Km) than for LogVmax. The increase of 1/Km with compound logP and size suggests that weak interactions are important, e.g. by substrate binding via desolvation processes. The importance of electronic factors for 1/Km was described in relation to the catalytic mechanism of the enzymes. Vmax was particularly influenced by electronic properties, such as dipole moment and energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. This can be explained by the nature of the catalysis, characterised by the cleavage and formation of covalent or ionic bonds (strong interactions). The present study may be helpful to understand the underlying principles of the chemical specific activity of four important oxidising enzymes.
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2017-01-09T06:38:42+00:00 Tags: , , , |