Human Bone Marrow Cell Culture: A Sensitive Method for Determination of the Biocompatibility of Implant Materials

Axel Wilke, Maximilian Landgraff, Joachim Orth, Holger Poenitz, Heino Kienapfel, Kerstin Boelte, Peter Griss and Rolf P. Franke

The objective of this study was to develop a test method for determining the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of various biomaterials that are used in orthopaedic surgery. This method is based on the use of a human bone marrow cell culture and was developed as an alternative to animal experiments. Human bone marrow cell culture has certain advantages over other cell culture models, as its results show a greater conformity with animal experimental results and clinical studies. Primary cell adherence, cell number, cell proliferation, production of extracellular matrix, cell viability and cell differentiation were used as indicative parameters of biocompatibility. After 2 weeks in culture, differences could be observed between the biomaterials with respect to these parameters. Cell numbers were greatest on the hydroxyapatite ceramic specimens, but were decreased on the titanium alloy specimens. Extracellular matrix hydroxyapatite production was high for ceramics, but reduced for titanium specimens. The polymers allowed only a few cells to adhere, and there were no signs of extracellular matrix production. The influence of biomaterials on differentiation of large numbers of cells was analysed by using flow cytophotometry. There were similar populations of T cells and monocytes on all specimens. However, extended B cell and granulocyte populations were observed with titanium and polyethylene.
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The Mandatory CAM Testing of Cells and Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering: Benefits for the Three Rs of Cooperation with the Vaccine Industry

Erwin Falkner, Claudia Eder, Barbara Kapeller, Walter Fröschl, Christine Schmatz, Karin Macfelda and Udo M. Losert

In cooperation with BAXTER Vaccine AG, which supplies incubated special pathogen-free chicken eggs (including a full veterinary record), a permanent hen’s egg chorio-allantoic membrane test (HET-CAM) unit has been established, where angiogenesis testing, cell culture, and digital and histological analyses are performed. At the Core Unit for Biomedical Research, the location of the animal testing facility of the Medical University Vienna, cell–scaffold constructs must be evaluated in vitro and in ovo prior to eventual in vivo tissue engineering experiments. The animal testing advisory committee requires that new test proposals are first evaluated by using cell culture and HET-CAM models. Approvals for in vivo experiments are postponed and not issued prior to in vitro/in ovo evaluation. Examples are presented of protocols planned for in vivo studies on cell seeded scaffolds, which were refined after in vitro/in ovo evaluations.
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