BCOP

/Tag:BCOP

The EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test is the Method of Choice for the In Vitro Eye Irritation Testing of Agrochemical Formulations:

Correlation Analysis of EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test and BCOP Test Data According to the UN GHS, US EPA and Brazil ANVISA Classification Schemes

Susanne N. Kolle, Maria Cecilia Rey Moreno, Winfried Mayer, Andrew van Cott, Bennard van Ravenzwaay and Robert Landsiede

The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test is commonly used for the identification of severe ocular irritants (GHS Category 1), but it is not recommended for the identification of ocular irritants (GHS Category 2). The incorporation of human reconstructed tissue model-based tests into a tiered test strategy to identify ocular non-irritants and replace the Draize rabbit eye irritation test has been suggested (OECD TG 405). The value of the EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for the prediction of ocular non-irritants (GHS No Category) has been demonstrated, and an OECD Test Guideline (TG) was drafted in 2014. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the BCOP test, in conjunction with corneal histopathology (as suggested for the evaluation of the depth of the injury) and/or the EpiOcular-EIT, could be used to predict the eye irritation potential of agrochemical formulations according to the UN GHS, US EPA and Brazil ANVISA classification schemes. We have assessed opacity, permeability and histopathology in the BCOP assay, and relative tissue viability in the EpiOcular-EIT, for 97 agrochemical formulations with available in vivo eye irritation data. By using the OECD TG 437 protocol for liquids, the BCOP test did not result in sufficient correct predictions of severe ocular irritants for any of the three classification schemes. The lack of sensitivity could be improved somewhat by the inclusion of corneal histopathology, but the relative viability in the EpiOcular-EIT clearly outperformed the BCOP test for all three classification schemes. The predictive capacity of the EpiOcular-EIT for ocular non-irritants (UN GHS No Category) for the 97 agrochemical formulations tested (91% sensitivity, 72% specificity and 82% accuracy for UN GHS classification) was comparable to that obtained in the formal validation exercise underlying the OECD draft TG. We therefore conclude that the EpiOcular-EIT is currently the best in vitro method for the prediction of the eye irritation potential of liquid agrochemical formulations.
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.

The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test in Routine Ocular Irritation Testing and Its Improvement Within the Limits of OECD Test Guideline 437

Arnhild Schrage, Susanne N. Kolle, Maria C. Rey Moreno, Kimberly Norman, Hans Raabe, Rodger Curren, Bennard van Ravenzwaay and Robert Landsiedel

Data on eye irritation are generally needed for the hazard identification of chemicals. As the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test has been accepted by many regulatory agencies for the identification of corrosive and severe ocular irritants since September 2009 (OECD Test Guideline 437, TG 437), we evaluated this alternative method for routine testing at BASF. We demonstrated our technical proficiency by testing the reference standards recommended in TG 437, and 21 additional materials with published BCOP and in vivo data. Our results matched the published in vitro data very well, but with some intentionally selected false negatives (FNs) and false positives (FPs), the concordance was 77% (24/31), with
FN and FP rates of 20% (2/10) and 24% (5/21), respectively. In addition, we tested 21 in-house materials, demonstrating the utility of the BCOP assay for our own test material panel. Histopathological assessment of the corneas by light microscopy was also conducted, as this was suggested as a means of improving the identification of FNs. The histopathology corrected the classification of some FNs, but also increased the number of FPs. Parallel to the test method evaluation, we compared three new opacitometer models with the current standard device. We recommend the use of an opacitometer developed in our BASF laboratory, which has certified components and electronic data storage, resulting in what we consider to be excellent sensitivity, stability and reproducibility.
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.

In-house Validation of the EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test and its Combination with the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test for the Assessment of Ocular Irritation

Susanne N. Kolle, Helena Kandárová, Britta Wareing, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, and Robert Landsiedel

In 2009, the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test was accepted by the regulatory bodies for the identification of corrosive and severe ocular irritants (Global Harmonised System [GHS] Category 1). However, no in vitro test is currently accepted for the differentiation of ocular irritants (GHS Category 2) and non-irritants (GHS No Category). Human reconstructed tissue models have been suggested for incorporation into a tiered testing strategy to ultimately replace the Draize rabbit eye irritation test (OECD TG 405). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the EpiOcular™ reconstructed cornealike tissue model and the COLIPA pre-validated EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EpiOcular-EIT) could be used as suitable components of this testing strategy. The in-house validation of the EpiOcular-EIT was performed by using 60 test substances, including a broad variety of chemicals and formulations for which in vivo data (from the Draize rabbit eye irritation test) were available. The test substances fell into the following categories: 18 severe irritants/corrosives (Category 1), 21 irritants (Category 2), and 21 non-irritants (No Category). Test substances that decreased tissue viability to ≤ 60% (compared to the negative control tissue) were considered to be eye irritants (Category 1/2). Test substances resulting in tissue viability of > 60% were considered to be non-irritants (No Category). For the assessed dataset and the classification cut-off of 60% viability, the EpiOcular-EIT provided 98% and 84% sensitivity, 64% and 90% specificity, and 85% and 86% overall accuracy for the literature reference and BASF proprietary substances, respectively. Applying a 50% tissue viability cut-off to distinguish between irritants and non-irritants resulted in 93% and 82% sensitivity, 68% and 100% specificity, and 84% and 88% accuracy for the literature reference and BASF proprietary substances, respectively. Further, in the EpiOcular-EIT (60% cut-off), 100% of severely irritating substances under-predicted by the BCOP assay were classified as Category 1/2. The results obtained in this study, based on 60 test substances, indicate that the EpiOcular-EIT and the BCOP assay can be combined in a testing strategy to identify strong/severe eye irritants (Category 1), moderate and mild eye irritants (Category 2), and non-irritants (No Category) in routine testing. In particular, when the bottom-up strategy with the 60% viability cut-off was employed, none of the severely irritating substances (Category 1) were under-predicted to be non-irritant. Sensitivity for Category 1/2 substances was 100% for literature reference substances and 89% for BASF SE proprietary substances.
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.