aquatic toxicity

/Tag:aquatic toxicity

Comparative Quantitative Structure–Activity–Activity Relationships for Toxicity to Tetrahymena pyriformis and Pimephales promelas

Iiris Kahn, Uko Maran, Emilio Benfenati, Tatiana I. Netzeva, T. Wayne Schultz and Mark T.D. Cronin

An approach for predicting acute aquatic toxicity, in the form of a quantitative structure–activity–activity relationship (QSAAR), is described. This study assessed relative toxic effects to a fish, Pimephales promelas, and a ciliate, Tetrahymena pyriformis, and attempted to form relationships between them. A good agreement between toxic potencies (R2 = 0.754) was found for a chemically diverse dataset of 364 compounds, when using toxicity to the ciliate as a surrogate to that for fish. This relationship was extended by adding three theoretical structural descriptors of the molecules. The inclusion of these descriptors improved the relationship further (R2 = 0.824). The structural features that were found to improve the extrapolation between the toxicity to the two different species were related to the electron distribution of the carbon skeleton of the toxicant, its hydrogen-bonding ability, and its relative nitrogen content. Such a QSAAR approach provides a potential tool for predicting the toxicities of chemicals for environmental risk assessment and thus for reducing animal tests.
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The Improvement of In Vitro Cytotoxicity Testing for the Assessment of Acute Toxicity in Fish

Michael Gülden and Hasso Seibert

The use of fish cell line cytotoxicity tests as alternatives to acute lethality tests with fish is hampered by the clearly lower sensitivity of the fish cell line tests. Recently, it has been shown that this is not a unique feature of fish cells. In fact, the sensitivity of mammalian and human cell lines toward the cytotoxic actions of chemicals, in general, is comparable to that of fish cell lines. Reviewing some of our recent investigations, the objective of this paper is to show that the sensitivity of in vitro cytotoxicity testing and the correspondence between in vitro cytotoxic and acute fish toxic concentrations (LC50) can be increased, if: a) inhibition of cell growth instead of cell death is used as the endpoint; and b) the bioavailable free cytotoxic concentration (ECu50) of chemicals in vitro, instead of the nominal cytotoxic concentration (EC50), is used as the measure of cytotoxic potency. Based on these results, a pragmatic in vitro testing strategy for estimating the minimal aquatic toxic potency of chemicals is proposed.
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Prediction of Acute Aquatic Toxicity Toward Daphnia magna by using the GA-kNN Method

Matteo Cassotti, Davide Ballabio, Viviana Consonni, Andrea Mauri, Igor V. Tetko, and Roberto Todeschini

In this study, a QSAR model was developed from a data set consisting of 546 organic molecules, to predict acute aquatic toxicity toward Daphnia magna. A modified k-Nearest Neighbour (kNN) strategy was used as the regression method, which provided prediction only for those molecules with an average distance from the k nearest neighbours lower than a selected threshold. The final model showed good performance (R2 and Q2 cv equal to 0.78, Q2ext equal to 0.72). It comprised eight molecular descriptors that encoded information about lipophilicity, the formation of H-bonds, polar surface area, polarisability, nucleophilicity and electrophilicity.

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Evaluation of CADASTER QSAR Models for the Aquatic Toxicity of (Benzo)triazoles and Prioritisation by Consensus Prediction

Stefano Cassani, Simona Kovarich, Ester Papa, Partha Pratim Roy, Magnus Rahmberg, Sara Nilsson, Ullrika Sahlin, Nina Jeliazkova, Nikolay Kochev, Ognyan Pukalov, Igor V. Tetko, Stefan Brandmaier, Mojca Kos Durjava, Boris Kolar, Willie Peijnenburg, and Paola Gramatica

QSAR regression models of the toxicity of triazoles and benzotriazoles ([B]TAZs) to an alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), Daphnia magna and a fish (Onchorhynchus mykiss), were developed by five partners in the FP7-EU Project, CADASTER. The models were developed by different methods — Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Partial Least Squares (PLS), Bayesian regularised regression and Associative Neural Network (ASNN) — by using various molecular descriptors (DRAGON, PaDEL-Descriptor and QSPRTHESAURUS web). In addition, different procedures were used for variable selection, validation and applicability domain inspection. The predictions of the models developed, as well as those obtained in a consensus approach by averaging the data predicted from each model, were compared with the results of experimental tests that were performed by two CADASTER partners. The individual and consensus models were able to correctly predict the toxicity classes of the chemicals tested in the CADASTER project, confirming the utility of the QSAR approach. The models were also used for the prediction of aquatic toxicity of over 300 (B)TAZs, many of which are included in the REACH pre-registration list, and were without experimental
data. This highlights the importance of QSAR models for the screening and prioritisation of untested chemicals, in order to reduce and focus experimental testing.
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Experimental Assessment of the Environmental Fate and Effects of Triazoles and Benzotriazole

Mojca Kos Durjava, Boris Kolar, Lovro Arnus, Ester Papa, Simona Kovarich, Ullrika Sahlin
and Willie Peijnenburg4,5

The environmental fate and effects of triazoles and benzotriazoles are of concern within the
context of chemical regulation. As part of an intelligent testing strategy, experimental tests were performed on endpoints that are relevant for risk assessment. The experimental tests included the assessment of ecotoxicity to an alga, a daphnid and zebrafish embryos, and the assessment of ready biodegradability. Triazole and benzotriazole compounds were selected for testing, based on existing toxicity data for vertebrate and invertebrate species, as well as on the principal component analysis of molecular descriptors aimed at selecting the minimum number of test compounds in order to maximise the chemical domain spanned for both compound classes. The experimental results show that variation in the toxicities of triazoles and benzotriazole across species was relatively minor; in general, the largest factor was approximately 20. The study conducted indicated that triazoles are not readily biodegradable.
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Read-across Estimates of Aquatic Toxicity for Selected Fragrances

Emiel Rorije, Tom Aldenberg and Willie Peijnenburg

Read-across as a non-animal testing alternative for the generation of risk assessment data can be useful in those cases where quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models are not available, or are less well developed. This paper provides read-across case studies for the estimation of the aquatic toxicity of five different fragrance substances, and proposes a pragmatic approach for expressing uncertainty in read-across estimates. The aquatic toxicity estimates and their uncertainties are subsequently used to estimate fresh water compartment Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs), with their two-sided 90% Confidence Intervals (CIs). These PNECs can be used directly in risk assessment. The results of the musk fragrance read-across cases (musk xylene, musk ketone and galaxolide) are compared to experimentally derived PNEC values. The read-across estimates made by using similarity in a hypothesised mechanism of action for (acute) toxicity of musk xylene gave a PNEC of 2μg/L (90% CI 0.0004–13.5μg/L) with the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) approach. This estimated value is 1.8 times above the experimentally-based fresh water PNEC of 1.1μg/L. For musk ketone and galaxolide, the PNEC values based on the SSD approach and employing a toxicity mechanism-based read-across were 2.0 times greater, and 4.9 times below the experimentally derived PNEC values, respectively.
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