animal alternatives

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2017 Lush Science Prize

Jenny McCann and Terry McCann

Now in its sixth year, the Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by awarding money prizes of up to £350,000 to the most effective projects and individuals who have been working towards the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. Prizes are awarded for developments in five strategic areas: Science; Lobbying; Training; Public Awareness; and Young Researchers. In the event of a major breakthrough leading to the replacement of animal tests in the area of 21st Century Toxicology, a Black Box Prize (equivalent to the entire annual fund) is awarded. The Science Prize is awarded to the researchers whose work the judging panel believe has made the most significant contribution to the replacement of animal testing in the preceding year. This Background Paper outlines the research projects that were shortlisted and presented to the judging panel as potential candidates for the 2017 Lush Science Prize. This process involved reviewing recent work of the relevant scientific institutions and projects in this area, such as the OECD, Human Toxome Project, UK NC3Rs, US Tox21 programme, ToxCast programme and the Human Toxicology Project Consortium. Recent developments in toxicity testing research were also identified by searching for relevant published papers in the literature, and analysing abstracts from conferences focusing on animal replacement in toxicity testing that had been held in the preceding 12 months — for example, the 2016 EUSAAT-Linz conference and the 2017 Society of Toxicology annual conference.
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2016 Lush Science Prize

Jenny McCann and Terry McCann

The Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by awarding monetary prizes totalling £250,000 to the most effective projects and individuals who have been working toward the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. Prizes are awarded for developments in five strategic areas: Science; Lobbying; Training; Public Awareness; and Young Researchers. In the event of a major breakthrough leading to the replacement of animal tests in the area of 21st Century Toxicology, a Black Box Prize (equivalent to the entire annual fund of £250,000) is awarded. The Science Prize is awarded to the researchers whose work the judging panel believe has made the most significant contribution to the replacement of animal testing in the preceding year. This Background Paper outlines the research projects that were shortlisted and presented to the judging panel as potential candidates for the 2016 Lush Science Prize. This process involved reviewing recent work of the relevant scientific institutions and projects in this area, such as the OECD, CAAT, The Hamner Institutes, ECVAM, UK NC3Rs, and the US Tox21 Programme. Recent developments in toxicity testing research were also identified by searching for relevant published papers in the literature, and analysing abstracts from conferences focusing on animal replacement in toxicity testing that had been held in the preceding 12 months — for example the EUSAAT-Linz, Society of Toxicology, and SEURAT-1 conferences.
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2015 Lush Science Prize

Jenny McCann and Terry McCann

The Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by rewarding the most effective projects and individuals who have been working toward the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. Prizes are awarded for developments in five strategic areas: Science; Lobbying; Training; Public Awareness; and Young Researchers. Should there be a major breakthrough in 21st century toxicology, a Black Box Prize equivalent to the entire annual fund of £250,000 is awarded. A Background Paper is prepared each year, prior to the judging process, to provide the panel with a brief overview of current developments in the field of Replacement alternatives, particularly those relevant to the concept of toxicity pathways. The Background Paper includes information on recent work by the relevant scientific institutions and projects in this area, including AXLR8, the OECD, The Hamner Institutes, the Human Toxome Project, EURL ECVAM, ICCVAM, the US Tox21 Programme, the ToxCast programme, and the Human Toxicology Project Consortium. Recent developments in toxicity pathway research are also assessed by reviewing the relevant literature (including conference proceedings), and the abstracts and papers receiving the highest score are presented to the judges for consideration.
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2014 Lush Science Prize – background paper

Terry McCann

The Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by rewarding the most effective projects and individuals who have been working toward the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. A Background Paper is prepared each year, prior to the judging process, to provide the panel with a
brief overview of current developments in the field of Replacement alternatives, particularly those relevant to the concept of toxicity pathways. This Background Paper includes information on recent work by the relevant scientific institutions and projects in this area, including AXLR8, OECD, CAAT, The Hamner Institutes, the Human Toxome Project, EURL ECVAM, ICCVAM, the US Tox21 Programme, the ToxCast programme, and the Human Toxicology Project Consortium. Recent developments in toxicity pathway research are also assessed by reviewing the relevant literature, with a view to presenting the two papers receiving the highest score to the judges for consideration.
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2013 Lush Science Prize Background Paper

Rob Harrison

The annual Lush Science Prize is designed to reward outstanding contributions to 21st Century Toxicology Research. A Background Paper is prepared each year prior to the judging process, in order to provide the judging panel with a brief overview of current developments in the field of Replacement alternatives, particularly those relevant to the concept of toxicity pathways. The Background Paper includes information on some key institutional developments in the area — such as the OECD’s Adverse Outcome Pathway Project, the Hamner Institute’s work, and the Human Toxome Project, and on the phenomenon of collaborative computer systems relevant to the field. From the literature review that was also performed as part of the background research, the two papers receiving the highest score were recommended for consideration by the judges for the 2013 Science Prize.
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Alternatives for Lung Research: Stuck Between a Rat and a Hard Place

Kelly A. BéruBé

The respiratory system acts as a portal into the human body for airborne materials, which may gain access via the administration of medicines or inadvertently during inhalation of ambient air (e.g. air pollution). The burden of lung disease has been continuously increasing, to the point where it now represents a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the UK, more people die from respiratory disease than from coronary heart disease or non-respiratory cancer. For this reason alone, gaining an understanding of mechanisms of human lung biology, especially in injury and repair events, is now a principal focus within the field of respiratory medicine. Animal models are routinely used to investigate such events in the lung, but they do not truly reproduce the responses that occur in humans. Scientists committed to the more robust Three Rs principles of animal experimentation (Reduction, Refinement and Replacement) have been developing viable alternatives, derived from human medical waste tissues from patient donors, to generate in vitro models that resemble the in vivo human lung environment. In the specific case of inhalation toxicology, human-oriented models are especially warranted, given the new REACH regulations for the handling of chemicals, the rising air pollution problems and the availability of pharmaceutically valuable drugs. Advances in tissue- engineering have made it feasible and cost-effective to construct human tissue equivalents of the respiratory epithelia. The conducting airways of the lower respiratory system are a critical zone to recapitulate for use in inhalation toxicology. Three-dimensional (3- D) tissue designs which make use of primary cells, provide more in vivo-like responses, based on the targeted interactions of multiple cell types supported on artificial scaffolds. These scaffolds emulate the native extracellular matrix, in which cells differentiate into a functional pulmonary tissue. When 3-D cell cultures are employed for testing aerosolised chemicals, drugs and xenobiotics, responses are captured that mirror the events in the in situ human lung and provide human endpoint data.
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