Alternatives to Animal Testing

/Tag:Alternatives to Animal Testing

Co-occurring Words: Finding Information About Alternatives to Animal Testing

Jane Huggins

A collection of co-occurring words has been gathered from a small database of abstracts about alternatives to skin irritation testing by using Boolean logic. Words were selected according to a strategy based on methodology. Such words and their co-occurrences may be considered an archival code by which data that describe alternatives to skin irritation testing can be more readily recognised. As such, they can be used to enhance the efficiency with which information about this area of alternatives to animal testing is found in journal articles, databases and Web sites
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An Evaluation of the In Vitro Cytotoxicities of 50 Chemicals by using an Electrical Current Exclusion Method versus the Neutral Red Uptake and MTT Assays

Toni Lindl, Birgit Lewandowski, Sonya Schreyögg and Andrea Stäudte

According to the 2001 National Institutes of Health guidance document on using in vitro data to estimate in vivo starting doses for acute toxicity, the performance of the electrical current exclusion method (ECE) was studied for its suitability as an in vitro cytotoxicity test. In a comparative study, two established in vitro assays based on the quantification of metabolic processes necessary for cell proliferation or organelle integrity (the MTT/WST-8 [WST-8] assay and the neutral red uptake [NRU] assay), and two cytoplasm membrane integrity assays (the trypan blue exclusion [TB] and ECE methods), were performed. IC50 values were evaluated for 50 chemicals ranging from low to high toxicity, 46 of which are listed in Halle’s Registry of Cytotoxicity (RC). A high correlation was found between the IC50 values obtained in this study and the IC50 data published in the RC. The assay sensitivity was highest for the ECE method, and decreased from the WST-8 assay to the NRU assay to the TB assay. The consistent results of the ECE method are based on technical standardisation, high counting rate, and the ability to combine cell viability and cell volume analysis for detection of the first signs of cell necrosis and damage of the cytoplasmic membrane caused by cytotoxic agents.
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Vaginal Irritation Models: The Current Status of Available Alternative and In Vitro Tests

Gertrude-Emilia Costin, Hans A. Raabe, Robert Priston, Eric Evans and Rodger D. Curren

Mucosal surfaces, such as the vaginal epithelium, are natural barriers to infection that are constantly exposed to bacteria and viruses, and are therefore potential sites of entry for numerous pathogens. The vaginal epithelium can be damaged mechanically, e.g. by the incorrect use of objects such as tampons, and by chemicals that are irritating or corrosive. Consequently, this can lead to an increase in susceptibility to further damage or infection. Pharmaceutical, cosmetic and personal care products that are specifically formulated for application onto human external mucosae can occasionally induce undesirable local or systemic side-effects. Therefore, the compatibility of applied materials with this mucosal surface represents a key issue to be addressed by manufacturers. The most frequently used method for assessing vaginal mucosal irritation is the in vivo rabbit vaginal irritation test. However, the current emphasis in the field of toxicology is to use alternative in vitro methods that reduce, refine, and replace the use of animals, and which model and predict human, not animal, responses. Such an approach is of particular interest to the personal care and cosmetic industries in their effort to comply with European legislative measures, such as the 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive that does not permit the marketing of cosmetic products if they, or their ingredients, have been tested for irritation responses in animals. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the alternative and in vitro tests that are currently available for vaginal mucosal irritation assessment, and which are already used, or may become useful, to establish the safety of newly-designed products for human use.
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Editorial: China is Taking Steps Toward Alternatives to Animal Testing

Rodger Curren and Brian Jones

The rate at which China is addressing the problems associated with animal testing may be reasonable, when one considers the fact that the Three Rs concept of refinement, reduction, and replacement of animal tests to detect chemical hazards, which is relatively new to China, has already existed for over 50 years in most English-speaking countries. But for only about half that time has it been considered by a majority of scientists as a respectable goal to pursue.
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