ADME

/Tag:ADME

Physiologically-based Simulation Modelling for the Reduction of Animal Use in the Discovery of Novel Pharmaceuticals

Simon Thomas

The global pharmaceutical industry is estimated to use close to 20 million animals annually, in in vivo studies which apply the results of fundamental biomedical research to the discovery and development of novel pharmaceuticals, or to the application of existing pharmaceuticals to novel therapeutic indications. These applications of in vivo experimentation include: a) the use of animals as disease models against which the efficacy of therapeutics can be tested; b) the study of the toxicity of those therapeutics, before they are administered to humans for the first time; and c) the study of their pharmacokinetics — i.e. their distribution throughout, and elimination from, the body. In vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) studies are estimated to use several hundred thousand animals annually. The success of pharmaceutical research currently relies heavily on the ability to extrapolate from data obtained in such in vivo studies to predict therapeutic behaviour in humans. Physiologically-based modelling has the potential to reduce the number of in vivo animal studies that are performed by the pharmaceutical industry. In particular, the technique of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling is sufficiently developed to serve as a replacement for many in vivo PK studies in animals during drug discovery. Extension of the technique to incorporate the prediction of in vivo therapeutic effects and/or toxicity is less well-developed, but has potential in the longer-term to effect a significant reduction in animal use, and also to lead to improvements in drug discovery via the increased rationalisation of lead optimisation.
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De-Risking Drug Discovery with ADDME — Avoiding Drug Development Mistakes Early

Katya Tsaioun and Mary Jacewicz

The advent of early Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity (ADMET) screening has increased the elimination rate of weak drug candidates early in the drug-discovery process, and decreased the proportion of compounds failing in clinical trials for ADMET reasons. This paper reviews the history of ADMET screening and why it has become so important in drug discovery and development. Assays that have been developed in response to specific needs, and improvements in technology that result in higher throughput and greater accuracy of prediction of human mechanisms of toxicity, are discussed. The paper concludes with the authors’ forecast of new models that will better predict human efficacy and toxicity.
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