Animal Experimentation and Alternatives: Time to Say Goodbye to the Three Rs and Hello to Humanity?

Michael Balls

The time has come to plan for a future where the Three Rs will have served their purpose, animal experimentation will have been consigned to history, and humane biomedical science in research, testing and education will have become the norm, for the benefit of humans and animals alike.

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Applying the Three Rs to Animal Experimentation and Animal Testing: Are We Merely Drifting or Lying at Anchor?

Michael Balls and Robert Combes

This issue of ATLA (34 [1], 2006) contains a number of very important items, which can be seen as encouraging or discouraging, depending on one’s hopes and ambitions with respect to alternatives.
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