The use of in vitro alternatives in pharmacotoxicological research has been a subject of continuous discussion among scientists, regulatory authorities and animal protection groups. Despite the fact that the validity and reliability of different in vitro models for replacing whole-animal experimentation have been scientifically proved, the routine use of in vitro tests remains limited. In the current industrial economic climate, I believe that, despite the simplicity and the predictive powers of the proposed in vitro models, the unfavourable cost:benefit ratio of some of these tests will remain an important barrier to the universal acceptance of in vitro alternatives.
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