Michael Balls, Ninna Berg, Leon H. Bruner, Rodger D. Curren, Odile de Silva, Lesley K. Earl, David J. Esdaile, Julia H. Fentem, Manfred Liebsch, Yasuo Ohno, Menk K. Prinsen, Horst Spielmann and Andrew P. Worth

This is the report of the thirty-fourth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures.
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