ATLA 40.5, October 2012

//ATLA 40.5, October 2012

Volume 40 issue 5

News & Views

ATLA staff writer

Iran Welcomes Alternatives Outreach
InterNICHE Database
Bio-bank for Research in Saudia Arabia
Alzheimer’s Disease
Calls for Improved Reporting on Animal Studies
Ex Vivo Tissue Stores Memories
Free Database of Drugs Associated with Liver Injury
Biofabricated Tissues
Men and Women Respond Differently to Treatment
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IIVS News & Views

ATLA staff writer

Dermal Absorption Workshop
Workshop for Russian Delegates
IIVS Webinar on ‘An In Vitro Ocular Hazard Testing strategy for EPA Registered Antimicrobial Cleaning Products: A Collaborative Success Story’
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2017-01-09T06:38:48+00:00 Tags: |

‘Human-on-a-chip’ Developments: A Translational Cutting-edge Alternative to Systemic Safety Assessment and Efficiency Evaluation of Substances in Laboratory Animals and Man?

Uwe Marx, Heike Walles, Silke Hoffmann, Gerd Lindner, Reyk Horland, Frank Sonntag, Udo Klotzbach, Dmitry Sakharov, Alexander Tonevitsky and Roland Lauster

Various factors, including the phylogenetic distance between laboratory animals and humans, the discrepancy between current in vitro systems and the human body, and the restrictions of in silico modelling, have generated the need for new solutions to the ever-increasing worldwide dilemma of substance testing. This review provides a historical sketch on the accentuation of this dilemma, and highlights fundamental limitations to the countermeasures taken so far. It describes the potential of recently-introduced microsystems to emulate human organs in ‘organ-on-a-chip’ devices. Finally, it focuses on an in-depth analysis of the first devices that aimed to mimic human systemic organ interactions in ‘human-on-a-chip’ systems. Their potential to replace acute systemic toxicity testing in animals, and their inability to provide alternatives to repeated dose long-term testing, are discussed. Inspired by the latest discoveries in human biology, tissue engineering and microsystems technology, this review proposes a paradigm shift to overcome the apparent challenges. A roadmap is outlined to create a new homeostatic level of biology in ‘human-on-a-chip’ systems in order to, in the long run, replace systemic repeated dose safety evaluation and disease modelling in animals.
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A Review of Autopsy Reports on Chimpanzees In or From US Laboratories

Theodora Capaldo and Marge Peppercorn

Approximately 1000 chimpanzees are currently held in five federally owned, or supported, US laboratories. This study reviews 110 autopsy reports on chimpanzees who died from 2001–2011 in laboratories or in sanctuaries (but who were from laboratories), in order to glean information about their premorbid health and causes of death. The findings raise questions about the health status of the chimpanzees remaining in laboratories. Most of the chimpanzees currently held are not involved in active protocols. The Chimpanzee Health Improvement, Maintenance, and Protection (CHIMP) Act 2000 states that chimpanzees “not needed” for research “shall” be accepted into the federal sanctuary system, but criteria for when a chimpanzee is deemed “not needed” are not given. The assessment of “not needed” lies with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, who has left the decision to the discretion of the laboratories. This autopsy review revealed that the majority of the chimpanzees who died in laboratories had been suffering from significant chronic or incurable illnesses, and most often had multi-system diseases that should have made them ineligible for future research, on scientific, as well as ethical, grounds. The study’s findings are significant in establishing the need for defined criteria for chimpanzee retirement to sanctuary.
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“How Sick Must Your Mouse Be?” — An Analysis of the Use of Animal Models in Huntington’s Disease Research

Nuno H. Franco and I. Anna S. Olsson

Refinement measures to improve animal welfare can ease the ethical dilemma between human benefit and animal harm in research with animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate the potential for refinement, as well as its implementation in research, we analysed papers on murine models of Huntington’s disease (HD) published between 1999 and 2009 (n = 233). Each study was classified according to a four-level severity scale, in terms of the disease stage that animals were allowed to reach, the execution of invasive procedures, and the implementation of refinement. Reports of ethical approval, and regulatory compliance in general, followed a clear rising trend over the years reviewed (p <0.001). However, the proportion of high-severity studies did not change over that period. Also, of the studies for which approval was reported (n = 120), 36% were attributed the highest severity level. The observed discrepancy between the rising motivation to affirm regulatory compliance, and the unaltered proportion of studies allowing animals to reach severely distressful stages, raises both ethical and methodological issues, which we discuss in this paper. [/fusion_toggle] [/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column row_column_index="1_2" type="1_1" background_position="left top" background_color="" border_size="" border_color="" border_style="solid" spacing="yes" background_image="" background_repeat="no-repeat" padding="" margin_top="0px" margin_bottom="0px" class="" id="" animation_type="" animation_speed="0.3" animation_direction="left" hide_on_mobile="no" center_content="no" min_height="none"][s2If current_user_cannot(access_s2member_level0)] You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.[/s2If]