ATLA 40.3, July 2012

//ATLA 40.3, July 2012

Volume 40 issue 3

News & Views

ATLA staff writer

Drosophila as a Model for Ayurvedic Medicine
Organ On-a-chip
Neonatal Tissue Culture Model for Vaccine Testing
Endothelial Cells Show Differences
Non-invasive Genotyping of Animals
Brain Tumour Biomarkers Identified
Immune Differences Between Mice and Humans
Computer Model to Predict Side-effects
Cholesterol Research with Zebrafish
Selected ATLA Papers Available on InterNICHE Database
Translation of The Principles into Japanese
Creating 3-D Chips with Human Cells and Tissues

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CAAT News & Views

ATLA staff writer

CAAT-led Consortium to Receive $800,000 Funding for Novel (Developmental) Neurotoxicity Cell Model from NIH
CAAT Pharmaceuticals Information Day — Scientific and Animal Welfare Innovations in Drug Development and Safety Assessment
CAAT Special Lecture by Jesse L. Goodman, MD, MPH, Deputy Commissioner for Science and Public Health of the US Food and Drug Administration
Why Europe Needs the Human Toxome Project
CAAT Information Day: New Approaches to Assessing Countermeasures to Bioterrorism Agents
Kick-off Meeting of the Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration (EBTC) Europe
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News from the FAL

Rita Seabra

The FRAME Alternatives Laboratory (FAL) was founded in 1983 at the University of Nottingham Medical School. Now under the leadership of Dr Andy Bennett, the FAL is continuing to discover and develop real alternatives to the use of animals in research and testing. Here, Andy outlines another of his current key projects, in a discussion with Rita Seabra.
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2017-01-09T06:38:43+00:00 Tags: |

Dorothy Hegarty Award Winners 2011

ATLA staff writer

The 2011 Dorothy Hegarty Award has been won by Dr Stephan Schumacher, Dr Jessica Stahl, Professor Dr Wolfgang Bäumer and Professor Dr Manfred Kietzmann (all from the Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany), for their paper, The Use of an In Vitro-cultured Porcine Nasal Mucosa Model for the Biocompatibility Assessment of Biodegradable Magnesium (ATLA 39, 261–271).
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2017-01-09T06:38:43+00:00 Tags: |

SNP Genotyping for the Genetic Monitoring of Laboratory Mice by Using a Microarray-based Method with Dual colour Fluorescence Hybridisation

Shu-Fang Cui, Qian Zhou and Xiu-Hua Qu

Ensuring the genetic homogeneity of the mice used in laboratory experiments contributes to the Reduction aspect of the Three Rs, by maximising the quality of the data obtained from any animals that are used for these purposes, and ultimately reducing the numbers of animals used. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is especially suitable for use in the analysis of the genetic purity of model organisms such as the mouse, because bi-allelic markers remain fully informative when used to characterise crosses between inbred strains. Here, we attempted to apply a microarray-based method for a SNP marker to monitor the genetic quality of inbred mouse strains, so as to validate the reliability, stability and applicability of this SNP genotyping panel. The amplified PCR products containing four different SNP loci from four inbred mouse strains were spotted and immobilised onto amino-modified glass slides to generate a microarray. This was then interrogated through hybridisation with dual-colour probes, to determine the SNP genotypes of each sample. The results indicated that this microarray-based method could effectively determine the genotypes of the four selected SNPs with a high degree of accuracy. We have developed a new SNP genotyping technique for effective use in the genetic monitoring of inbred mouse strains.

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Do Faculty in Southern Indian Medical Colleges Support Animal Use in Postgraduate Education More Than in Undergraduate Education?

Syed Ilyas Shehnaz, Jayadevan Sreedharan, Mohamed Arifulla and Kadayam Guruswami Gomathi

In India, animal experiments play an integral role in both undergraduate medical education (UGME) and postgraduate medical education (PGME) in the discipline of Pharmacology. Therefore, we aimed to compare the perceptions of pharmacology faculty members in southern India with regard to the use of animal experiments and alternatives in UGME and in PGME. We also determined the association between these perceptions and the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Pharmacology faculty members in 15 medical colleges located in southern India answered a 27-statement, 5-domain questionnaire with a total score of 108. The means of the total, domain and statement scores were analysed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The mean total score obtained for faculty members (n = 52) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) for PGME (61.2/108) than that for UGME (51.9/108). Significant differences were observed in the mean total and in the domain scores for PGME when compared to UGME in all of the socio-demographic groups, except for male faculty members and those without an MD or doctoral degree. The mean individual statement scores also indicated that there is more support for animal use in PGME. Overall, it was apparent that pharmacology faculty members in southern Indian medical colleges support animal use in PGME more than in UGME. Increased awareness is required among faculty members concerning alternatives to animal experiments in medical education, especially in PGME. [/fusion_toggle] [/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column row_column_index="1_2" type="1_1" background_position="left top" background_color="" border_size="" border_color="" border_style="solid" spacing="yes" background_image="" background_repeat="no-repeat" padding="" margin_top="0px" margin_bottom="0px" class="" id="" animation_type="" animation_speed="0.3" animation_direction="left" hide_on_mobile="no" center_content="no" min_height="none"][s2If current_user_cannot(access_s2member_level3)] [_s2If current_user_can(access_s2member_ccap_400303)] [fusion_button link="" color="default" size="small" target="_self" title="Download" animation_type="0" animation_direction="down" animation_speed="0.1"]Download this article[/fusion_button] [/_s2If] [_s2If current_user_cannot(access_s2member_ccap_400303)] This article is currently only available in full to paid subscribers. Click here to subscribe, or you will need to log in/register to buy and download this article [/_s2If] [/s2If]

Report of the EPAA–ECVAM Workshop on the Validation of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS)

Agnieszka Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Gavin Maxwell, Joachim Kreysa, João Barroso, Els Adriaens, Nathalie Alépée, Ninna Berg, Susanne Bremer, Sandra Coecke, José Z. Comenges, Raffaella Corvi, Silvia Casati, Gianni Dal Negro, Monique Marrec-Fairley, Claudius Griesinger, Marlies Halder, Eckhard Heisler, Doris Hirmann, André Kleensang, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Silvia Lapenna, Sharon Munn, Pilar Prieto, Len Schechtman, Terry Schultz, Jean-Marc Vidal, Andrew Worth and Valérie Zuang

The use of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) permits the combination of diverse types of chemical and toxicological data for the purposes of hazard identification and characterisation. In November 2008, the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA), together with the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), held a workshop on Overcoming Barriers to Validation of Non-animal Partial Replacement Methods/Integrated Testing Strategies, in Ispra, Italy, to discuss the extent to which current ECVAM approaches to validation can be used to evaluate partial replacement in vitro test methods (i.e. as potential ITS components) and ITS themselves. The main conclusions of these discussions were that formal validation was only considered necessary for regulatory purposes (e.g. the replacement of a test guideline), and that current ECVAM approaches to validation should be adapted to accommodate such test methods (1). With these conclusions in mind, a follow-up EPAA–ECVAM workshop was held in October 2009, to discuss the extent to which existing validation principles are applicable to the validation of ITS test methods, and to develop a draft approach for the validation of such test methods and/or overall ITS for regulatory purposes. This report summarises the workshop discussions that started with a review of the current validation methodologies and the presentation of two case studies (skin sensitisation and acute toxicity), before covering the definition of ITS and their components, including their validation and regulatory acceptance. The following main conclusions/recommendations were made: that the validation of a partial replacement test method (for application as part of a testing strategy) should be differentiated from the validation of an in vitro test method for application as a stand-alone replacement, especially with regard to its predictive capacity; that, in the former case, the predictive capacity of the whole testing strategy (rather than of the individual test methods) would be more important, especially if the individual test methods had a high biological relevance; that ITS allowing for flexible and ad hoc approaches cannot be validated, whereas the validation of clearly defined ITS would be feasible, although practically quite difficult; and that test method developers should be encouraged to develop and submit to ECVAM not only full replacement test methods, but also partial replacement methods to be placed as parts of testing strategies. The added value from the formal validation of testing strategies, and the requirements needed in view of regulatory acceptance of the data, require further informed discussion within the EPAA forum on the basis of case studies provided by industry.

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