ATLA 39.3, July 2011

//ATLA 39.3, July 2011

News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

Colon Cancer in Virtual Patients
Computers Help Scientists to Understand Schizophrenia
Cardiovascular Research with the Fruit Fly
Children and Developmental Disorders
Empathy in Chickens
German Research Foundation Presents Alternatives Awards
Expansion of Stem Cells in Culture
Algorithm that Could be Used to Influence Cells
C. elegans and Ciliopathies
Rats Could be Used as Lab Assistants
Changes at FRAME
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2017-01-09T06:38:20+00:00 Tags: |

CAAT News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

Altweb Project Team Meeting and Three Rs Organisations Meeting at the 8th World Congress
Other Forthcoming Meetings and Workshops
The Latest Issue of ALTEX (Volume28, No. 2) is Now Available
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2017-01-09T06:38:20+00:00 Tags: |

CAAT News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

Altweb Project Team Meeting and Three Rs Organisations Meeting at the 8th World Congress
Other Forthcoming Meetings and Workshops
The Latest Issue of ALTEX (Volume 28, No. 2) is Now Available
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.
2017-01-09T06:38:24+00:00 Tags: |

Integrated Testing Strategies for Toxicity Employing New and Existing Technologies

Robert D. Combes and Michael Balls

We have developed individual, integrated testing strategies (ITS) for predicting the toxicity of general chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inhaled chemicals, and nanoparticles. These ITS are based on published schemes developed previously for the risk assessment of chemicals to fulfil the requirements of REACH, which have been updated to take account of the latest developments in advanced in chemico modelling and in vitro technologies. In addition, we propose an ITS for neurotoxicity, based on the same principles, for incorporation in the other ITS. The technologies are deployed in a step-wise manner, as a basis for decision-tree approaches, incorporating weight-of-evidence stages. This means that testing can be stopped at the point where a risk assessment and/or classification can be performed, with labelling in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory authority concerned, rather than following a checklist approach to hazard identification. In addition, the strategies are intelligent, in that they are based on the fundamental premise that there is no hazard in the absence of exposure — which is why pharmacokinetic modelling plays a key role in each ITS. The new technologies include the use of complex, three-dimensional human cell tissue culture systems with in vivolike structural, physiological and biochemical features, as well as dosing conditions. In this way, problems of inter-species extrapolation and in vitro/in vivo extrapolation are minimised. This is reflected in the ITS placing more emphasis on the use of volunteers at the whole organism testing stage, rather than on existing animal testing, which is the current situation.
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Is a Compromise Possible in Russia Between Animal Advocates and Researchers Who Use Animals in Harmful Experiments?

Anatoly S. Loukianov

The current situation relating to the use of laboratory animals in Russia, which is primarily characterised by the complete absence of legislation for their protection, is examined and discussed. This lack of regulation causes well-founded protests by animal protection organisations and a number of reputable politicians. It also has a negative influence on the quality of medical and biological research results that are obtained through the use of experimental animals in Russia. The opinion is expressed that the Russian scientific community should be able to build upon the experience of other countries — in particular, members of the European Union, where there is an effective system of self-control over the ethical and legislative regulation of animal-based research. It is suggested that, in Russia, the basic animal protection principles of the Three Rs should be introduced, when the decision on whether to finance scientific projects involving the use of animals is being made.
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The Use of In Vitro Systems to Assess Cancer Mechanisms and the Carcinogenic Potential of Chemicals

Damien Breheny, Oluwatobiloba Oke and Stephen P. Faux

Carcinogenesis is a highly complex, multi-stage process that can occur over a relatively long period before its clinical manifestation. While the sequence in which a cancer cell acquires the necessary traits for tumour formation can vary, there are a number of mechanisms that are common to most, if not all, cancers across the spectrum of possible causes. Many aspects of carcinogenesis can be modelled in vitro. This has led to the development of a number of mechanistically driven, cell-based assays to assess the pro-carcinogenic and anti-carcinogenic potential of chemicals. A review is presented of the current in vitro models that can be used to study carcinogenesis, with examples of cigarette smoke testing in some of these models, in order to illustrate their potential applications. We present an overview of the assays used in regulatory genotoxicity testing, as well as those designed to model other aspects that are considered to be hallmarks of cancer. The latter assays are described with a view to demonstrating the recent advances in these areas, to a point where they should now be considered for inclusion in an overall testing strategy for chemical carcinogens.
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Validation of the Educational Potential of a Simulator to Develop Abilities and Skills for the Creation and Maintenance of an Intravenous Cannula

Juan J. Perez-Rivero and Emilio Rendón-Franco

Historically, the method used in veterinary medicine to teach technical procedures which are to be performed on live animals, has taken the form of an apprenticeship. However, in the last decade, there have been several new developments in technologies oriented toward the development of such abilities and skills by students — for example, manuals, videos, pictures, and virtual reality simulators. Unfortunately, these simulators are inaccessible to many, due to their high cost. For this reason, it is necessary to create simulators that are easy to manufacture at low cost, and that are also portable. These simulators also need to be validated with regard to their ability to fulfil the required educational objectives. The validation of a venous simulator is described in this study. Fifty-two veterinary students, with no previous experience in the creation and maintenance of an indwelling venous cannula, were selected at random. They were divided into two groups: one experimental group (n = 35), who had training practice on the simulator, and the remainder (n = 17), who acted as the control group (i.e. they had no training practice on the simulator). The outcome measure was the number of attempts required to successfully cannulate the cephalic vein of an anaesthetised rabbit. The students in the experimental group showed more skill in cannulating the vein, with 45% effectiveness, as compared to 20% effectiveness in the control group. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05).[/fusion_toggle] [/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column row_column_index="1_2" type="1_1" background_position="left top" background_color="" border_size="" border_color="" border_style="solid" spacing="yes" background_image="" background_repeat="no-repeat" padding="" margin_top="0px" margin_bottom="0px" class="" id="" animation_type="" animation_speed="0.3" animation_direction="left" hide_on_mobile="no" center_content="no" min_height="none"][s2If current_user_cannot(access_s2member_level0)] You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.[/s2If]