ATLA 39, 2011

/ATLA 39, 2011

Introduction to the Abstracts of the International Symposium on Alternate Animal Models in Biological Research: Present and Future Perspective in Toxicology

<h3>Conference abstracts</h3>

An international symposium, on Alternate Animal
Models in Biological Research: Present and Future
Perspective in Toxicology, was organised by the
Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR),
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
(CSIR), Lucknow, India, on 29–31 October 2010.
The symposium stemmed from an ongoing international
collaborative programme between the
IITR and the University of Nottingham, UK, with
the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India
(IIT-K) as a satellite partner, under the aegis of
the UK–India Education and Research Initiative
(UK–IERI; British Council, UK) Major Research
Award Project (MA-05).

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2017-01-09T06:38:17+00:00 Tags: |

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ATLA Staff Writer

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2017-01-09T06:38:17+00:00 Tags: |

Replacing Animal Use in Physiology and Pharmacology Teaching in Selected Universities in Eastern Europe — Charting a Way Forward

David G. Dewhurst and Zvezdana Z. Kojic

The aims of this study were to explore the use of animals in teaching and the implementation of innovative technology-based teaching practices across a small sample of universities in Eastern Europe. The research methods used were a questionnaire circulated four weeks before a workshop took place (in October 2009, in Belgrade, Serbia), as well as focused, face-to-face group discussions, led by one of the authors during the workshop. Twenty-two faculty (physiologists and pharmacologists), from 13 Eastern European countries, attended the meeting. Fourteen of the eighteen schools represented at the workshop were making use of animals, in some instances in quite large numbers, for their teaching. For example, a single department at a Romanian university used over 250 animals per annum, and at least 1130 animals were used, per annum, across all of the institutions. The species used in largest numbers were the rat (34%), frog/toad (29%), mouse (22%), rabbit (10%), guinea-pig (4%) and dog (1%). None of the universities sampled had implemented institution-wide virtual learning environments (VLEs), although there were isolated instances of local use of VLEs. There was relatively little current use of technology-based teaching and learning resources, but there was considerable enthusiasm to modernise teaching and to introduce innovative learning and teaching methods. The major perceived barrier to the introduction of replacement alternatives was the lack of versions in local languages. There was a consensus view that developing local language exemplars and evaluating their usefulness was likely to have the greatest impact on animal use, at least in the short-term.
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The Cell Transformation Assay: Toward a Statistical Classification of Mixed and Intermediate Foci Images

Claudio Procaccianti, Federico M. Stefanini and Chiara Urani

The human carcinogenicity evaluation of chemicals has a great impact on public health. In vitro methods, such as the cell transformation assay (CTA), allow for a fast and reliable assessment of the carcinogenic potential of a chemical compound in comparison with the standard two-year bioassay. The scoring and classification of foci in selected cell lines is performed, after staining, by light microscopy. Foci can be separated into three classes: type I, which are scored as non-transformed, and types II and III that are considered to include fully transformed foci. However, in a number of cases, even an expert is uncertain about the attribution of a focus to a given class, due to its mixed or intermediate nature. Here, we suggest a simple approach to classifying mixed or intermediate foci by exploiting the quantitative information available from images, which is captured by statistical descriptors. A quantitative index is proposed, to describe the degree of dissimilarity of mixed and intermediate images to the three well-distinguished classes.
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The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test in Routine Ocular Irritation Testing and Its Improvement Within the Limits of OECD Test Guideline 437

Arnhild Schrage, Susanne N. Kolle, Maria C. Rey Moreno, Kimberly Norman, Hans Raabe, Rodger Curren, Bennard van Ravenzwaay and Robert Landsiedel

Data on eye irritation are generally needed for the hazard identification of chemicals. As the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test has been accepted by many regulatory agencies for the identification of corrosive and severe ocular irritants since September 2009 (OECD Test Guideline 437, TG 437), we evaluated this alternative method for routine testing at BASF. We demonstrated our technical proficiency by testing the reference standards recommended in TG 437, and 21 additional materials with published BCOP and in vivo data. Our results matched the published in vitro data very well, but with some intentionally selected false negatives (FNs) and false positives (FPs), the concordance was 77% (24/31), with
FN and FP rates of 20% (2/10) and 24% (5/21), respectively. In addition, we tested 21 in-house materials, demonstrating the utility of the BCOP assay for our own test material panel. Histopathological assessment of the corneas by light microscopy was also conducted, as this was suggested as a means of improving the identification of FNs. The histopathology corrected the classification of some FNs, but also increased the number of FPs. Parallel to the test method evaluation, we compared three new opacitometer models with the current standard device. We recommend the use of an opacitometer developed in our BASF laboratory, which has certified components and electronic data storage, resulting in what we consider to be excellent sensitivity, stability and reproducibility.
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ATLA Staff Writer

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2017-01-09T06:38:18+00:00 Tags: |