ATLA 37.S2, December 2009

//ATLA 37.S2, December 2009

FRAME, the Three Rs and the Russell Archive at the University of Nottingham

Michael Balls

The objectives of the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME) are spelled out, as laid down in the Charity’s Trust Deed of 1969, and the support of the Charity’s trustees, consultants, patrons and staff in all that has been achieved during its first 40 years, are recognised. The recent establishment of the W.M.S. and Claire Russell Archive at the University of Nottingham is recognised as a further important link between FRAME and the University.
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FRAME: The Early Days

Andrew N. Rowan

The article reviews the early history of FRAME from the perspective of its first “Scientific Administrator”. The roles of Mrs Hegarty the founder, and other early contributors to FRAME’s development are described. In addition, the article discusses FRAME’s strategic approach to the subject and how Mrs Hegarty’s background influenced the development of that approach.
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“I’m Not Going to Make a Song and Dance about It…”

Jon Richmond

Having been involved with the biomedical sciences and alternatives for 30 of the 50 years since Russell and Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, I feel well placed to speak of the contributions made by FRAME over the last 40 years. FRAME has promoted the development and use of alternatives by presenting the “better science” arguments to scientists, promoting informed discussion, changing opinions and changing behaviours. FRAME has also contributed constructively to the political debate, and was instrumental in promoting legislation which incorporated the principles of the Three Rs. Times are changing, and the Three Rs are increasing being politicised: and FRAME is particularly well placed to ensure that good science and good welfare, rather than ideology, remain the basis for interest in and progress with the Three Rs.
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The Role of an Academic Centre

Alan M. Goldberg

On FRAME’s 40th anniversary, I had the opportunity to examine FRAME and CAAT’s missions as closely linked to those of their universities. The roles of education, research and service are key, both to the universities and to our two centres. By examining the current programmes, and identifying the needs of the future, the research activities, policy studies and training, it becomes clear that the Three Rs of alternatives contribute significantly to our respective universities’ missions.
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Collaboration Between ZEBET, FRAME and ECVAM: FRAME’s Contribution to Establishing the Three Rs in Europe

Horst Spielmann

FRAME has more than any other institution contributed to the implementation of the Three Rs concept in Europe. The first step was achieved by establishing the European Research Group on Alternatives to Toxicity Testing (ERGATT), in which individual scientists in several European countries began to collaborate to promote the development and validation of in vitro toxicity tests in order to refine, reduce and replace the use of animals in toxicity testing. The first successful project was the start of the INVITOX in vitro toxicology database, which is today managed by ECVAM. Major milestones were the establishment in 1989 of ZEBET, the first national centre for alternatives, in Germany, and of ECVAM in 1991. In 1990, ERGATT and CAAT organised a workshop in Amden, Switzerland, at which European and US scientists developed the concept of experimental validation of toxicity tests, which today remains the basis for the independent, scientific validation process. ECVAM has applied this validation concept in all of its successful validation studies, which have provided in vitro toxicity tests that have been accepted for regulatory purposes by the EU Commission and by the OECD. By re-launching the ATLA journal in 1983, FRAME provided another powerful scientific tool for promoting the Three Rs in Europe and around the world. The close cooperation of scientists from FRAME, ZEBET and ECVAM has most effectively promoted and established the Three Rs as the basic scientific, ethical and legal concept for refining, reducing and replacing the use of experimental animals.
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Personal Reflections on Russell and Burch, FRAME, and The HSUS

Martin L. Stephens

The coincidence of anniversaries associated with the publication of William Russell and Rex Burch’s The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, the founding of the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME), and the establishment of the collaboration between FRAME and the University of Nottingham, provides an opportunity to reflect on Russell and Burch’s legacy and how it was carried forward by FRAME. The Principles, published in 1959, was the pioneering work in what later became the alternatives or Three Rs field of replacement, reduction, and refinement of animal use. Such was the book’s initial and undeserved obscurity, however, that FRAME, following its founding in 1969, pioneered a similar approach independently of Russell and Burch’s work. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) was also an early champion of the alternatives framework, and through the establishment of the Russell and Burch Award, helped unite Russell and Burch with what had emerged as the alternatives community. Thanks largely to FRAME, Russell and Burch were able to participate in Three Rs activity before their deaths. They lived long enough to see their ideas take hold, but not long enough to see the emerging revolution currently under way in toxicity testing, toward the use of non animal methods
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An Investment in the Three Rs Can be Very Profitable

Rodger Curren

The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by William Russell and Rex Burch provides exceptional value, both to practitioners of alternative methodologies and to bibliophiles who enjoy the pursuit of an out-of-print book. I was stimulated to find an original edition by my first visits to FRAME and its Chairman, Michael Balls. The search continued for several years, until I was able to find an edition suitable for presentation to him. During this hunt, I was able to learn a great deal about the Three Rs of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, and the programmes that FRAME initiated to educate scientists and the general public about alternative approaches. Very importantly, I was able to use many of FRAME’s successful strategies to build up a similar organisation in the United States, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences. The double value of this book is now revealed — not only are its concepts scientifically and ethically valuable, but the price now being charged by secondhand booksellers means a more than ten-fold increase in the value of my investment!
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The Dr Hadwen Trust for Humane Research: 39 years of Replacement Science

Sebastien Farnaud

The year 2009 will not be remembered mainly because it is the Chinese year of the ox, but probably, for many, because it is Charles Darwin’s bicentenary, the 150th anniversary of the publication of his masterpiece, The Origin of Species, the 50th anniversary of the publication by Russell and Burch of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, where they introduced the concept of Three Rs, and also the 40th anniversary of the foundation of the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME). FRAME will always remain our senior, since the Dr Hadwen Trust for Humane Research is only celebrating its 39th anniversary this year! After four decades of learning, challenging, contesting, creating, promoting and advancing the Three Rs concept, the idea of the replacement of the use of animals in research has itself become a science, giving the old sterile debate between pro- and anti-vivisectionists a new dimension. Although scientific progress has been the main reason for such changes, it is important to remember that, without the people and organisations whose aim has been devoted to this cause, these changes might never have happened. Still, as illustrated by the 2008 statistics on animal procedures, many more changes will have to be made, and it is by considering the progress achieved during the last 40 years that we can find the strength and motivation to pursue our goal of scientific research and testing that no longer relies on animal-based techniques.
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Per aspirin ad astra…

Thomas Hartung

Taking the 110th anniversary of marketing of aspirin as starting point, the almost scary toxicological profile of aspirin is contrasted with its actual use experience. The author concludes that we are lucky that, in 1899, there was no regulatory toxicology. Adding, for the purpose of this article, a fourth R to the Three Rs, i.e. Realism, three reality-checks are carried out. The first one comes to the conclusion that the tools of toxicology are hardly adequate for the challenges ahead. The second one concludes that, specifically, the implementation of the EU REACH system is not feasible with these tools, mainly with regard to throughput. The third one challenges the belief that classical alternative methods, i.e. replacing animal test-based tools one by one, is actually leading to a new toxicology — it appears to change only patches of the patchwork, but not to overcome any inherent limitations other than ethical ones. The perspective lies in the Toxicology for the 21st Century initiatives, which aim to create a new approach from the scratch, by an evidence-based toxicology and a global “Human Toxicology Programme”.
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The Importance of Anniversaries

Vicky Robinson

This year marks a number of important anniversaries for the Three Rs and those organisations involved in their advancement. These include the 50th anniversary of the publication of Russell and Burch’s book, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, the 40th anniversary of FRAME, and the 5th anniversary for the UK’s National Centre for the 3Rs. These anniversaries provide an important opportunity to reflect on past achievements and future challenges.
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