ATLA 37, 2009

/ATLA 37, 2009

News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

The Nordic Prize for Alternatives 2008
EPAA New Website
Launch of a Pioneering Animal Ethics Book Series
Drug Combination Stimulates Production of a Patient’s Stem Cells
Funding Halted for Stem-cell Research
Go-ahead for Stem-cell work in the US
Sources of Serum-free Media for Cell Culture
UK Regulatory Approval Granted for Stroke Stem Cell Therapy Clinical Trial
A New Initiative to Promote the Use of Human Tissues in Research
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2017-01-09T06:37:41+00:00 Tags: |

The FRAME Reduction Steering Committee: Reflections on a Decade Devoted to Reducing Animal Use in Biomedical Science

Michelle Hudson and Bryan Howard

Established in 1998, the FRAME Reduction Committee (FRC) (now the FRAME Reduction Steering Committee [FRSC]) has continued to pursue its aim of reducing the number of animals used in biomedical science. Through its expertise in statistics, experimental design, animal welfare and research on alternatives, it has contributed to raising awareness of the need for reduction and the means of achieving and demonstrating it. In recognising the need for training of scientists to appreciate and understand the concept of reduction, the FRSC has organised dedicated workshops and training schools. Some of the Committee’s major achievements are described, and, bearing in mind the current year-on-year increases in the number of scientific procedures on animals, its future activities are outlined.
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ECVAM News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

Meeting of EPAA Working Group 4
Stakeholder Meeting to Launch Validation Study in the Field of Metabolism and Hepatic Toxicity
15th International Congress on In Vitro Toxicology — ESTIV 2008
CASCADE Open Forum on Endocrine Disruption (ED)
ECVAM Invited to Participate in Sanofi Pasteur Education Day
Sens-it-iv 3rd year Annual General Assembly
Test Smart — Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT2) Meeting: Creating a Humane and Efficient Approach to Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing
ECVAM Participation in the 29th Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicity and Chemistry North America
Joint EPAA WG5–ECVAM Workshop on Overcoming Barriers to Validation: Integrated Testing Strategies
European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) Workshop — In Vitro ADME in Safety Testing
7th Meeting of the ECVAM Steering Group Biologicals
Upcoming Conferences
Publications
ECVAM at the EUROTOX Congress in Rhodes, Greece
Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Safety Evaluations of Conventional Drugs
ECVAM Participation in an OECD Expert Meeting on In Vitro Skin Irritation
OECD Expert Meeting on the Extended F1 Generation Study
ECVAM Participation in the 31st European Meeting of the Toxicology Forum
1st SECTAC Europe Special Science Symposium on Integrated Testing Strategies for REACH
Submission of EU Test Method B.46: In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Model Test
CARCINOGENOMICS Annual Meeting
ReProTect Joint Research Area Meeting
ECVAM Participation in the OECD Validation Management Group for Non-animal Testing (VMG-NA)
First Validation Management Group Meeting on the ECVAM Prospective Validation Study on Reconstructed Human Tissue Models for Eye Irritation
International Meeting on the Harmonisation of the LLNA Performance Standards
29th Meeting of ECVAM’s Scientific Advisory Committee (ESAC)
ESAC Statements
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2017-01-09T06:37:41+00:00 Tags: |

Planning for Reduction

Rose Gaines Das, Derek Fry, Richard Preziosi and Michelle Hudson

Reduction is one of the Three Rs which can be readily achieved in practice. This can be done by careful consideration of the experimental strategy and the implementation of good experimental design. Moreover, strategic planning leads to ‘best’ scientific practice and can have a positive impact on both refinement and replacement. The FRAME Reduction Steering Committee has developed a flow chart for an overall strategy for planning and conducting biomedical research. This, and important planning considerations for each of the steps proposed, are discussed. The strategy involves taking an initial overview and undertaking related background research, then planning a sequence of experiments expected to give satisfactory results with the least animal use and minimal severity, choosing an efficient design for each experiment in the sequence, reviewing the results of one experiment before progressing to the next, and conducting an overall analysis at the end of the programme. This approach should minimise animal use and maximise the quality of the resultant scientific output.
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More is Less: Reducing Animal Use by Raising Awareness of the Principles of Efficient Study Design and Analysis

Bryan Howard, Michelle Hudson and Richard Preziosi

Good experimental design and the appropriate use of statistical tests form the corner stone of high-quality scientific research. This is especially important when the experiments involve the use of laboratory animals, to ensure that their use is appropriate and that the minimum number of animals will be used that will provide data which are sufficiently statistically-sound to meet the objectives of the study. One way to raise awareness of the importance of efficient study design and analysis is to provide training courses. This paper reports the views of participants at two such training schools, with reference to why they felt that attendance was necessary and how effective they felt the experience had been. The implications of the responses are discussed, and considerations for future training events are noted.
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Animal Studies in Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review of Methylprednisolone

Aysha Z. Akhtar, John J. Pippin and Chad B. Sandusky

The objective of this study was to examine whether animal studies can reliably be used to determine the usefulness of methylprednisolone (MP) and other treatments for acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. This was achieved by performing a systematic review of animal studies on the effects of MP administration on the functional outcome of acute SCI. Data were extracted from the published articles relating to: outcome; MP dosing regimen; species/strain; number of animals; methodological quality; type of injury induction; use of anaesthesia; functional scale used; and duration of follow-up. Subgroup analyses were performed, based on species or strain, injury method, MP dosing regimen, functional outcome measured, and methodological quality. Sixty-two studies were included, which involved a wide variety of animal species and strains. Overall, beneficial effects of MP administration were obtained in 34% of the studies, no effects in 58%, and mixed results in 8%. The results were inconsistent both among and within species, even when attempts were made to detect any patterns in the results through subgroup analyses. The results of this study demonstrate the barriers to the accurate prediction from animal studies of the effectiveness of MP in the treatment of acute SCI in humans. This underscores the need for the development
and implementation of validated testing methods.
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Worldwide Trends in the Use of Animals in Research: The Contribution of Genetically-modified Animal Models

Elisabeth H. Ormandy, Catherine A. Schuppli and Daniel M. Weary

The Three Rs — Reduction, Replacement and Refinement — which were first proposed in 1959 by Russell and Burch, have become widely accepted principles in the governance of humane animal research. However, there is substantial variation in the ways in which different countries document the numbers and types of research animals used, making it difficult to determine how effectively the Three Rs are being implemented. Here, we provide the first data illustrating worldwide trends in animal use for research purposes. To document global trends in animal use, we sampled 2691 articles from 24 countries, published between 1983 and 2007, in four scientific journals. We show that the percentage of articles reporting animal use has risen in the past 15 years. The rising popularity of genetic modification methods has contributed to this trend: reported genetically-modified animal use has more than doubled since 1997. We also show that mice are the most commonly-used species for genetic modification, and that, even in 2007, relatively inefficient random integration methods were still widely used to achieve genetic modification. These results illustrate shortcomings in the effort to implement the Three Rs in animal research.
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The Skin Compatibility of Distilled Tall Oils: Evaluation With the Bovine Udder Skin In Vitro Model System

Wolfgang Pittermann, Fredrik Hopfgarten and Manfred Kietzmann

Distilled tall oil (DTO) is a natural product, often added as an emulsifying ingredient in cutting fluids used as lubricants and coolants in metal working. The in vitro model used to test the skin compatibility of these substances, was the isolated perfused ex vivo bovine udder skin (BUS) model. After three exposure periods (0.5, 1, and 5 hours), cytotoxic effects were determined by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and tissue levels of the pre-inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in treated whole skin biopsies were assessed by using an enzyme immunoassay. The BUS standard study design, involving a single application, was previously developed to investigate the skin irritation potential of cosmetics and chemicals. In the current study, four different batches of undiluted DTO, and tall oil fatty acids as a reference compound, were applied both singly and repeatedly (three times), under open conditions which were in line with the potential usage conditions in the work place. Under the standardised single application conditions, no major differences in cytotoxic effects or PGE2 levels between the samples were apparent, so no indication of a skin irritation potential could be concluded. This result is in accordance with prior in vivo studies for acute dermal toxicity. Under repeated application conditions, signs of cytotoxicity were observed after the application of one of the DTO samples, which was known to be derived from different raw materials. Therefore, it was concluded that, generally, the presence of DTO at a concentration of up to 10% in cutting fluids, is not expected to result in any DTO-related deterioration of the skin.
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