ATLA 32, 2004

/ATLA 32, 2004

Fourth World Congress: Education and Information Resources

Workshop Reports

Extracts from the Proceedings of the Fourth World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA 11-15 August 2002.
Owing to the age of the documents, not all papers are available electronically.
These are large files and could take a little time to download.
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.

Fourth World Congress: Test Development, Validation and Implementation

Conference Papers

Extracts from the Proceedings of the Fourth World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA 11-15 August 2002.
Owing to the age of the documents, not all papers are available electronically.
These are large files and could take a little time to download.
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.

Fourth World Congress: Test Development, Validation and Implementation

Workshop Reports

Extracts from the Proceedings of the Fourth World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA 11-15 August 2002.
Owing to the age of the documents, not all papers are available electronically. These are large files and could take a little time to download.
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.

Fourth World Congress Point-Counterpoint Debates

Point-Counterpoint Debates

Extracts from the Proceedings of the Fourth World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA 11-15 August 2002.
Owing to the age of the documents, not all papers are available electronically.
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.

Editorial: The Need for Recommitment to the Three Rs and to Serving Together in the Middle Ground

Michael Balls

These are very disturbing times for those of us who advocate the orderly and progressive reduction, refinement and replacement of animal experimentation via a case-by-case evaluation of the necessity for performing animal procedures, in the light of the potential benefit which might result and the likely suffering to animals which would be involved.
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2017-01-09T06:32:01+00:00 Tags: |

News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

New Trustees for FRAME
Staff Changes at FRAME
Human Dendritic & Antigen Presenting Cell Gene Array
Royal Society Guidance
“If It Doesn’t Work, Stop It”
Botulinum Toxin Testing
Support for Alternatives for Botulinum Toxin Testing
Dentists Turn to Botox
Canadian Animal Use in 2001
Serum-free Media for Cell Culture
InterNICHE Policy Available On-line
Animal Protection Prize
UFAW/Tesco Award
Addendum to ATLA 31 (6)
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2017-01-09T06:32:01+00:00 Tags: |

ECVAM News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

ECVAM Task Forces
ECVAM Workshops
ECVAM’s Activities within the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Enlargement Action
Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive
Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) and In Vitro Toxicology
ECVAM Staff
ECVAM Publications
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2017-01-09T06:32:02+00:00 Tags: |

Report of a Meeting to Discuss a National Centre for the Replacement of Animals in Experiments

Christine Brock, Gill Langley and Carol Newman

Following the publication of their joint proposal for a National Centre for the Replacement of Animals in Experiments in 2002, the Dr Hadwen Trust and the Lord Dowding Fund organised a meeting, held on 18 November 2003 at Portcullis House, Westminster, in London, in order to discuss the concept further. A one-page summary of their proposal is attached as an appendix, and full copies are available from the Lord Dowding Fund and the Dr Hadwen Trust. The meeting aimed to discuss the need to stimulate and promote research to replace animal experiments by means of a National Centre (a coordinating body), and how this should be established and funded. Participants, numbering about 80 in total, included politicians (national and European), government officials, scientists, funding bodies and animal welfare representatives. This report is a summary of the issues raised by speakers and other participants at the meeting.
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A Methylcellulose Microculture Assay for the In Vitro Assessment of Drug Toxicity on Granulocyte/macrophage Progenitors (CFU-GM)

Augusto Pessina, Cristina Croera, Maria Bayo, Ilaria Malerba, Laura Passardi, Loredana Cavicchini, Maria G. Neri and Laura Gribaldo

In a recent prevalidation study, the use of a methylcellulose colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) macroassay for two independent in vitro tests (human and murine cell based) was suggested for quantifying the potential haematotoxicity of xenobiotics. In this paper, we describe the transfer of the macroassay to a 96-well plate microassay, in which the linearity of the response was studied (both in terms of CFU-GM and optical density [OD] versus the number of cells cultured), and the inhibitory concentration (IC) values for doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and taxol were determined and compared with those obtained by using the original macroassay. Fresh murine bone marrow and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells were used as a source of myeloid progenitors. The cells were cultured in methylcellulose containing ranulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and in the presence of increasing drug concentrations. The cloning capacity of the progenitors was measured both as the number of colonies counted manually (CFU-GM), and as OD evaluated with an automated plate reader in an MTT test. Our results show that, in the microassay, up to 20 colonies/well could be easily counted, and that this range (20 to zero) gave a regression line from which IC values were calculated, which were very close to those obtained by using the macroassay (where the range of colony numbers was from 100 to zero). The test did not give good results when the OD (instead of the colony count) was used as the endpoint, because, although a high coefficient of determination was obtained, the OD values ranged from 0.6 to zero and the IC values determined were not comparable to those obtained by manual counts. The use of the microassay dramatically reduces the quantity of methylcellulose needed, and permits hundreds of cultures to be processed in the same experiment, contributing to significant reductions in both the work involved and the cost. A further important benefit is a reduction of the amount of drug needed for testing, which is crucial for screening new molecules, when many different toxicological tests have to be carried out. The microassay is therefore a useful and reproducible tool for screening compounds (chemicals, drugs and xenobiotics) for potential haematotoxicity directly on human myeloid progenitors, and could contribute significantly to reducing the use of animals in toxicity testing.
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Evaluation of a Flat Membrane Hepatocyte Bioreactor for Pharmacotoxicological Applications: Evidence that Inhibition of Spontaneously Produced Nitric Oxide Improves Cell Functionality

Nikolina Canová, Eva Kmonícková, Dagmar Lincová, Libor Vítek and Hassan Farghali

A laboratory-scale bioreactor was re-evaluated, with the aim of improving its use for the perfused culture of rat hepatocytes. In contrast to conventional culture systems, the flat membrane bioreactor (FMB) showed good functionality and biochemical competence during 2–3 days. Hepatocytes cultured in the FMB, specifically in a “sandwich” configuration, were functionally stable, as shown by a high rate of urea biosynthesis after challenge with NH4Cl, a low alanine-aminotransferase leakage and suppressed spontaneous nitric oxide (NO) production. Moreover, the time-course of the disappearance of cyclosporin A (CsA) from the perfusate demonstrated the high biotransformation capacity of cells in the FMB. The effect of CsA on the modulation of urea and spontaneous NO production demonstrated flexibility, in that
minor changes could be observed at diverse time intervals and in a non-destructive way. The monitoring of nitrite levels during various steps of isolation and culture suggested that spontaneously produced NO has a negative impact on hepatocyte metabolic and functional integrity. In spite of the sophisticated techniques that are being used for the preparation of bioreactors, with hepatocytes surviving for longer periods, our data have shed light on some factors that could be important for the successful use of similar models for pharmacotoxicological and other biomedical applications.
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