ATLA 30.6, November 2002

//ATLA 30.6, November 2002

The New Scientist and Primate Research: The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde?

PASTE*AUTHORS*HERE

In its issue of 23 November 2002, New Scientist shows an almost "Jekyll and Hyde" reaction to the use of non-human primates at the proposed neuroscience research centre at Cambridge. The balanced and reasonable view put forward in the Editorial1 contrasts sharply with the bias shown in an article by Andy Coghlan.2
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2017-01-09T06:29:30+00:00 Tags: |

Introduction to the Fourth Annual FRAME Lecture, by Dr Ian Kimber, Presented at the Royal College of Physicians, London, on 16 October 2002

Michael Balls

It gives me great pleasure to introduce the fourth FRAME Annual Lecturer, Ian Kimber, who is Head of Research, Health Assessment and Environmental Safety, at the Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory (CTL). Those who know me well will be aware that I rarely, if ever, flatter others, whoever they may be, so when I say that Ian Kimber is a most excellent example of the kind of scientist needed in Three Rsoriented research, make no mistake, I really mean it.
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2017-01-09T06:29:31+00:00 Tags: |

Evaluation and Prevalidation of an Immunotoxicity Test Based on Human Whole-blood Cytokine Release

Ingrid Langezaal, Sebastian Hoffmann, Thomas Hartung, & Sandra Coecke

Immunotoxicology is a relatively new field in toxicology, and is one of emerging importance, because immunotoxicity appears to contribute to the development of cancer, autoimmune disorders, allergies and other diseases. At present, there is a lack of human cell-based immunotoxicity assays for predicting the toxicity of xenobiotics toward the immune system in a simple, fast, economical and reliable way. Existing immunotoxicity tests are mainly performed in animals, although species differences favour humanbased testing. Whole-blood cytokine release models have attracted increasing interest, and are broadly used for pharmacological in vitro and ex vivo studies, as well as for pyrogenicity testing. We have adapted those methods for immunotoxicity testing, to permit the potency testing of immunostimulants and immunosuppressants. Following stimulation with a lipopolysaccharide or staphylococcal enterotoxin B, monocytes and lymphocytes release interleukin-1β and interleukin-4, respectively. Thirty-one pharmaceutical compounds, with known effects on the immune system, were used to optimise and standardise the method, by analysing their effects on cytokine release. The in vitro results were expressed as IC50 values for immunosuppression, and SC4 (fourfold increase) values for immunostimulation, and compared with therapeutic serum concentrations of the compounds in patients, and in vivo LD50 values from animal studies. The in vitro results correlated well with the in vivo data, so the test appears to reflect immunomodulation. Results were reproducible (CV = 20 ± 5%), and the method could be transferred to another laboratory (r2 = 0.99). We therefore propose this method for further validation and for use in immunotoxicity testing strategies.
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Arsenic Toxicity and HSP70 Expression in Xenopus laevis Embryos

Rosalba Gornati, Claudio Monetti, Davide Vigetti, Stefano Bosisio, Salvador Fortaner, Enrico Sabbioni, Giovanni Bernardini and Mariangela Prati

The evaluation of the effect of trace metals on health can be difficult, because of their presence in the environment in various chemical forms. Exposure to arsenic compounds is an example of this complexity, as it can be present in the environment in inorganic and organic forms. The effects of arsenic in vertebrates are complicated by several variables, such as speciation of the element, the exposure route, and the susceptibility of the particular animal species. The embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of three arsenic species - sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), disodium hydrogen arsenate (Na2HAsO4) and dimethylarsinic acid [(CH3)2AsOOH] - were evaluated by the modified frog embryo teratogenic assay on Xenopus (FETAX). We also show how the classical FETAX endpoints, based on morphological and morphometrical analysis, can conveniently be integrated with the study of molecular markers. Possible changes in the expression of the mRNA for the heat-shock protein HSP70, following exposure to NaAsO2, were examined by using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. HSP70 mRNA is strongly induced by arsenic.
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Comments on the Report of the House of Lords Select Committee on Animals in Scientific Procedures

Robert D. Combes and Michael Balls

This commentary comprises our responses to each of the seven conclusions and twenty-four recommendations2 made in the report of the House of Lords Select Committee on Animals in Scientific Procedures, published in July 2002 (1).
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2017-01-09T06:29:33+00:00