ATLA 27, 1999

/ATLA 27, 1999

Human Bone Marrow Cell Culture: A Sensitive Method for Determination of the Biocompatibility of Implant Materials

Axel Wilke, Maximilian Landgraff, Joachim Orth, Holger Poenitz, Heino Kienapfel, Kerstin Boelte, Peter Griss and Rolf P. Franke

The objective of this study was to develop a test method for determining the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of various biomaterials that are used in orthopaedic surgery. This method is based on the use of a human bone marrow cell culture and was developed as an alternative to animal experiments. Human bone marrow cell culture has certain advantages over other cell culture models, as its results show a greater conformity with animal experimental results and clinical studies. Primary cell adherence, cell number, cell proliferation, production of extracellular matrix, cell viability and cell differentiation were used as indicative parameters of biocompatibility. After 2 weeks in culture, differences could be observed between the biomaterials with respect to these parameters. Cell numbers were greatest on the hydroxyapatite ceramic specimens, but were decreased on the titanium alloy specimens. Extracellular matrix hydroxyapatite production was high for ceramics, but reduced for titanium specimens. The polymers allowed only a few cells to adhere, and there were no signs of extracellular matrix production. The influence of biomaterials on differentiation of large numbers of cells was analysed by using flow cytophotometry. There were similar populations of T cells and monocytes on all specimens. However, extended B cell and granulocyte populations were observed with titanium and polyethylene.
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Cats in Scientific Procedures: Main Areas of Use in the UK and Some Causes for Concern

Samantha J. Gray

The Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME) has recently established a project to study the use of cats in scientific procedures. The principal objectives of this study are to identify the areas of research in which cats are used, the justification for their use, and whether scientifically valid alternatives exist. This will be achieved by applying the Three Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) concept.
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2017-01-09T06:26:53+00:00 Tags: |

A General Approach for Evaluating Stepwise Testing Strategies

Andrew P. Worth and Julia H. Fentem

A stepwise (hierarchical) testing strategy is an approach to hazard evaluation based on the sequential application of one or more alternative methods prior to the use of any animal tests which are considered necessary. The purpose of a stepwise testing strategy is to reduce and refine the use of animals in toxicity testing without compromising human safety.
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Abstracts of the Articles Published in ALTEX Volume 15 1998

ATLA Staff Writer

The results of the experimental prevalidation of three in vitro embryotoxicity tests from an ECVAM study are reported. The tests were: the rat whole embryo culture (WEC) assay; the micromass (MM) assay; and the embryonic stem cell test (EST). Three test chemicals, one assigned to each of the three classes of embryotoxicity (non-embryotoxic, moderately embryotoxic and strongly embryotoxic) and a positive and a negative control chemical were repeatedly tested in two laboratories on at least two separate occasions.
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Book Review

David Clark

The First World Congress having been such a success, it was always going to be difficult for the Second World Congress to match the high standards that had been set. In the event, the standards were not only matched, but often exceeded. This 1200-page volume of the proceedings of the Congress is an outstanding account of an outstanding event, attended by more than 900 participants from 37 countries.
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Seeking Information on The Three Rs — More Than Just a Legal Burden

Krys Bottril

The report of the Focus on Alternatives (FOA) workshop, which appears in this issue of ATLA (ATLA 27, 239–245), is just one manifestation of the heightened interest in access to information on the Three Rs that is currently evident in the UK. The driving force for this interest is, of course, the revision to the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, which took effect in September 1998 and which spells out clearly the requirement for the licence applicant to be aware of all practicable possibilities for implementing any of the Three Rs.a The Home Office Inspectorate has let it be known that one way in which applicants will be required to demonstrate this awareness is by documenting the steps they have taken to inform themselves of such possibilities. The documentation can include a description of literature searches that have been conducted, with details of the search terms used and the databases interrogated, as well as details of other routes of enquiry, for example, searches on the Internet, consultation of mailing list archives, or discussions with colleagues.
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The Integrated Use of Alternative Methods in Toxicological Risk Evaluation

Bas J. Blaauboer, Martin D. Barratt and J. Brian Houston

The ECVAM Task Force on Integrated Testing Strategies was established in December 1996, with the remit of assessing the current status of integrated toxicity testing, and of making proposals regarding the design and implementation of integrated testing strategies. The first step in an integrated testing strategy is usually to determine the chemical functionality of a substance, on the basis of its structure and physicochemical properties. The biokinetic and dynamic behaviours of the chemical in various in vitro systems are then assessed. The various elements are then integrated, in either a parallel or a stepwise fashion, to make predictions of the local or systemic toxicity of the chemical of interest. In this report, a generic scheme for local/systemic toxicity, and a specific scheme for target organ toxicity, are proposed. The scope and limitations of the approaches are discussed. The task force hopes that its proposals will stimulate a discussion on the feasibility of this type of approach and it welcomes any feedback. It is planned that the discussion points will be elaborated in a second task force report.
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Accessing Information on the Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of Animal Experiments

Gill Langley, Caren Broadhead, Krys Bottrill, Robert Combes, Roger Ewbank, Penny Hawkins, Robert Hubrecht, Maggy Jennings, Carol Newman, Sally Rowe, Jacqueline Southee, Martin Todd and Les
Ward

All scientists who use animals in scientific procedures have an ethical obligation to ensure that the research aims cannot be
achieved in other ways. However, in many countries, including those of the European Union, this responsibility is also a legislative requirement (1, 2).
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2017-01-09T06:26:53+00:00 Tags: |