ATLA 27.5, September 1999

//ATLA 27.5, September 1999

News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

4th World Congress to be Held in Boston, USA
International Launch of New Life Science Video
Awards Presented at the 3rd World Congress
FRAME Staff Research at 3rd World Congress
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2017-01-09T06:27:00+00:00 Tags: |

The Use of Human Keratinocytes and Human Skin Models for Predicting Skin Irritation

Johannes van de Sandt, Roland Roguet, Catherine Cohen, David Esdaile, Maria Ponec, Emanuela Corsini, Carol Barker, Norbert Fusenig, Manfred Liebsch, Diane Benford, Anne de Brugerolle de Fraissinette and Manigé Fartasch

This is the report of the thirty-eighth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals.
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Cell Transformation Assays as Predictors of Human Carcinogenicity

Robert Combes, Michael Balls, Rodger Curren, Michel Fischbach,
Norbert Fusenig, David Kirkland, Claude Lasne, Joseph Landolph,
Robert LeBoeuf, Hans Marquardt, Justin McCormick, Lutz Müller, Edgar Rivedal, Enrico Sabbioni, Noriho Tanaka, Paule Vasseur and Hiroshi Yamasaki

This is the report of the thirty-ninth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals
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Comparison of Hepatocyte Cultures and Liver Slices in In Vitro Toxicity Testing

Elisabeth George, Janice Murdock, Mike Aylott and Carl Westmoreland

The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro toxicities of two hepatotoxins in hepatocyte cultures and in liver slices from both rats and dogs. Hepatocytes and liver slices were pre-incubated for 2 hours and then exposed to galactosamine or paracetamol, both of which mainly induce liver necrosis in vivo. Following exposure to the compounds for 20 hours, neutral red uptake (NRU [hepatocyte cultures only]), MTT reduction, and reduced glutathione (GSH), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and protein content, were used to measure the toxicity induced. In general, galactosamine and paracetamol exposure caused comparable levels of toxicity in hepatocyte cultures and in liver slices. For galactosamine, no consistent differences were seen between hepatocyte cultures and liver slices. With paracetamol, the toxic effects were generally slightly more pronounced in hepatocyte cultures than in liver slices, and the preparations from dog liver were more sensitive than those from rat liver to paracetamol exposure. These results are in agreement with previously described species differences in vitro. NRU and GSH content were more sensitive and more consistent endpoints than MTT reduction, ATP content or protein content. Liver slices appeared to lose viability over the 20 hours in culture. Therefore, it can be concluded that liver slices should only be used in relatively short-term investigations.
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Time-courses of Growth Inhibition and Recovery for Narcotic Chemicals and 2,6-Dinitrophenol in Pollen Suspensions of Nicotiana sylvestris

Stefan Sichtling, Hartmut Quader and Udo Kristen

In a previous structure-activity analysis of chlorophenol and nitrophenol toxicity, the pollen tube growth test was shown to discriminate between oxidative uncoupling and narcotic mechanisms of action. To examine the suitability of the use of pollen tubes in screening for narcotic chemicals, we used tobacco pollen suspensions and performed time-course experiments on pollen tube growth inhibition and recovery after exposure to 1-butanol, 2-chloroaniline, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,6-dinitrophenol, during pollen culture for 22 hours. After exposure to the chemicals for 2 hours, pollen tubes exposed to 1-butanol and 2,6-dinitrophenol were able to recover, whereas recovery was poor after exposure to 2-chloroaniline and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Dilution experiments to remove the narcotics from the pollen suspension indicated that 2-chloroaniline and 2,4-dichlorophenol accumulated in the pollen grain wall, presumably due to their high octanol/water partition coefficients. Therefore, we suggest that the pollen tube growth test is not suitable for correctly predicting the narcotic potencies of highly lipophilic compounds. In the presence of 1-butanol, pollen grains did not germinate, but became characteristically enlarged. This observation suggests that 1-butanol inhibits the establishment of the cell polarity necessary for initiating pollen tube outgrowth.
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Laboratory Animal Consciousness and Feelings: Adopting the Precautionary Principle

R. Harry Bradshaw

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy states that “consciousness exists but it resists definition”, and goes on to state that “consciousness involves experience or awareness” (1). In addition, Searle has stated that “many efforts have been made
to identify consciousness with some other feature such as behaviour, functional states, or neurobiological states described
solely in third person neurobiological terms. All of these fail because consciousness has an irreducible subjective character
which is not identical with any third feature” (2).
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2017-01-09T06:27:01+00:00 Tags: , |

Book Reviews

David B. Morton and Stephen Wickens

This book can be highly recommended to those who are concerned, in any way, with the health and safety issues which involve laboratory animals (and also issues which do not, as it contains much useful generic information and guidance).
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