ATLA 27.1, January 1999

//ATLA 27.1, January 1999

The Precautionary Principle Should be Used with Caution — and Should be Applied to Animal Experimentation and Genetic Manipulation, Not Merely to Protection of the Environment

Michael Balls

What is now known as the precautionary principle emerged in German federal law in the 1970s as the Vorsorgeprinzip (the “foresight principle”), and subsequently became incorporated into many multinational treaties and declarations.
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News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

APC Membership Revised
Grant Proposals Requested
Lord Dowding Fund Research Grants
American Statistics
CAAT Recognition Award Nominations
New Executive Director for the Canadian Council on Animal Care
Parks Foundation Grants Available
Nominations Requested for 1999 SKB Prize
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Letter from CAAT

Lisa A. Libowitz

What in vitro methods currently exist that can replace the set of assays known as the Screening Information Data Set (SIDS)? This question is being asked with urgency by many organisations throughout the world in response to plans recently announced by the US chemical industry to begin collecting SIDS data on nearly 3000 chemicals.
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Alternatives to the Use of Animals in Higher Education

Jan van der Valk, David Dewhurst, Ian Hughes, Jeffrey Atkinson, Jonathan Balcombe, Hans Braun, Karin Gabrielson, Franz Gruber, Jeremy Miles, Jan Nab, Jason Nardi, Henk van Wilgenburg, Ursula Zinko and Joanne Zurlo

This is the report of the thirty-third of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals.
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Eye Irritation Testing: The Way Forward

Michael Balls, Ninna Berg, Leon H. Bruner, Rodger D. Curren, Odile de Silva, Lesley K. Earl, David J. Esdaile, Julia H. Fentem, Manfred Liebsch, Yasuo Ohno, Menk K. Prinsen, Horst Spielmann and Andrew P. Worth

This is the report of the thirty-fourth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures.
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The Production of Polyclonal Antibodies in Laboratory Animals

P.P.A. Marlies Leenaars, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Wim A. de Leeuw, Florina Carat, Philippe Delahaut, René Fischer, Marlies Halder, W. Carey Hanly, Joachim Hartinger, Jann Hau, Erik B. Lindblad, Werner Nicklas, Ingrid M. Outschoorn and Duncan E.S. Stewart-Tull

This is the report of the thirty-fifth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become wellinformed about the state-of-the-art of nonanimal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures.
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Comparative Surfactant Reactivity of Canine and Human Stratum Corneum: A Plea for the Use of the Corneosurfametry Bioassay

Véronique Goffin, Jacques Fontaine and Gérald E. Piérard

Comparative dermatology has paid little attention to the physiopathology of the stratum corneum. In this study, we investigated the responses of human and canine horny layers to marketed animal wash products by using the corneosurfametry bioassay. Previous work has shown that, with increasing surfactant aggressiveness to the stratum corneum, the colorimetric index of mildness (CIM) decreases, while both the corneosurfametry index (CSMI) and the overall difference in corneosurfametry (ODC) increase. In the present study, stratum corneum reactivity to wash products and inter-individual variability were significantly higher in humans than in dogs. For the three corneosurfametry variables, linear correlations were found between data gathered in the two panel groups. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that mean stratum corneum reactivity to surfactants is stronger in humans than in dogs. Interindividual variation, indicative of sensitive skin, also appears to be broader in humans. As a consequence, data gathered from dogs by using the corneosurfametry bioassay cannot be extrapolated to humans. Such variation between species could be important in the assessment of product safety and in supporting claims for mildness.
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A Preliminary Comparison of LiverBeadsTM with a Conventional Rat Hepatocyte Culture Preparation: Some Aspects of Xenobiotic Metabolism and Related Toxicity

Alison H. Hammond, Michael J. Garle and Jeffrey R. Fry

LiverBeadsTM are made of hepatocytes that are immobilised and cryopreserved in alginate gel. They have great potential as an easily transportable and easily handled source of hepatocytes for use in in vitro pharmacotoxicology. In this study, we compared the drug metabolising capacity of LiverBeads in culture with that of conventional cultures and of cultures derived from cryopreserved cells. Trypan blue exclusion, lactate dehydrogenase and DNA content were measured in LiverBead cultures. The levels were all similar to those of the conventional cultures, as were the toxicities of precocene II and allyl alcohol, although more variability was seen in the LiverBeads than in the conventional cultures. The cytochrome P450-dependent activity 3,4-dimethyl-7-ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase, was reduced in the LiverBeads when compared to the conventional cultures, although the pattern of conjugation was very similar. In addition, the inducibility of cytochrome P4504A was demonstrated in LiverBeads. Cultures from cryopreserved cells were more susceptible to the toxicants tested, and contained less lactate dehydrogenase and DNA than the conventional cultures. Overall, in terms of the aspects of drug metabolism measured, the cultures from LiverBeads appeared to be equivalent to conventional cultures, and superior to cultures from cryopreserved cells.
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Short-term Toxicity of Various Pharmacological Agents on the In Vitro Nitrification Process in a Simple Closed Aquatic System

Herman Nimenya, Annie Delaunois, Duc La Duong, Serge Bloden, Jean Defour, Baudouin Nicks and Michel Ansay

During the treatment of fish diseases, drugs which inhibit the nitrification process can cause acute ammonia toxicity. The same phenomenon can occur when fish are put into a tank without active cultures of nitrifying bacteria. The purpose of this study was to quantify the inhibitory effects of 15 pharmacological agents, which are often used as therapeutic agents in ichthyopathology, on ammonia removal and nitrate production in a simple closed aquatic system. The experiments were conducted in polyethylene bags containing activated biofilters and synthetic water solutions, held in a water bath. Ammonia was added to initiate the nitrification process, and graded concentrations of various pharmacological agents were added. The effects of the pharmacological agents on in vitro nitrification were assessed by monitoring ammonia and nitrate concentrations compared to controls with no added agents, for 24 hours. Graded concentrations of ampicillin (Albipen®), chloramine T, enrofloxacin (Baytril®), erythromycin, levamisole, methylene blue and polymyxin B induced dose-dependent inhibitions of ammonia removal and nitrate production. The corresponding linear regression curves showed high correlation coefficients and were highly significant (p < 0.05). The addition of chloramphenicol, copper (II) sulphate, kanamycin disulphate, malachite green, neomycin sulphate, potassium penicillin G, tetracycline and a mixture of trimethoprim and sulphadoxin (DuoprimTM) had no significant effects on the nitrification process. A significant dose-related inhibition of nitrate production, but not of ammonia oxidation, was observed with enrofloxacin. The significant correlation (r = 0.940; p < 0.001) between the degrees of inhibition of ammonia oxidation and nitrate production for the various inhibitory pharmacological agents has also been calculated, with a view to validating this method. The data presented suggest that separate tank facilities for hospitalisation or quarantine are necessary when treating diseased fish with ampicillin, enrofloxacin, chloramine T, erythromycin, levamisole, methylene blue or polymyxin B, in order to avoid ammonia poisoning.[/fusion_toggle] [/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column row_column_index="1_2" type="1_1" background_position="left top" background_color="" border_size="" border_color="" border_style="solid" spacing="yes" background_image="" background_repeat="no-repeat" padding="" margin_top="0px" margin_bottom="0px" class="" id="" animation_type="" animation_speed="0.3" animation_direction="left" hide_on_mobile="no" center_content="no" min_height="none"][s2If current_user_cannot(access_s2member_level0)] You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.[/s2If]