ATLA 25.4, July 1997

//ATLA 25.4, July 1997

Postponement of the EU Ban on Animal Tests for Cosmetic Ingredients

Michael Balls

There is much disappointment, not only in the animal welfare movement, but also in many parts of the European Commission, the European Union (EU) Member States and the cosmetic industry, because the Commission has had to recommend the postponement from 1 January 1998 to 30 June 2000 of the proposed ban on the marketing in the EU of cosmetic products containing ingredients or combinations of ingredients tested on animals in order to meet the requirements of EU Directive 76/768/EEC.
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2017-01-09T06:26:22+00:00 Tags: |

News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

Grant Aids Search for Botulinum Test Alternative
New Briefing Paper
SKB Prize Winner
Zurich Animal Procedures Ban
WARDS and SCAW to Sponsor Seminar at National Meeting
Review of Australian Code of Practice
World Congress Proceedings Published
Doerenkamp-Zbinden Foundation Prize
Amendments to ATLA 25.3
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2017-01-09T06:26:22+00:00 Tags: |

Letter from CAAT

Alan M. Goldberg

Some might ask whether the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) is still necessary. The testing issue is no longer in the news, because many of the early challenges have been so successfully met. New testing schemes have been developed and most companies sitting around this table now market products without animal testing. As a result, public concern about this issue is at its lowest level in years. The role of alternatives has become so well-recognised that the US, European and international regulatory communities themselves are in the business of validating alternative tests.
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Current Status and Future Developments of Databases on Alternative Methods

Annett Janusch, Margot D.O. van der Kamp, Krys Bottrill, Barbara Grune, David C. Anderson, Björn Ekwall, Michelle Howald, Roman Kolar, Hans J.D. Kuiper, Jean Larson, Gregorio Loprieno, Ursula G. Sauer, Adrian J. Smith and Jan B.F. van der Valk

This is the report of the twenty-fifth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals.
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2017-01-09T06:26:22+00:00 Tags: , , |

Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effects of MEIC Chemicals 31–50 on Primary Culture of Rat Hepatocytes and Hepatic and Non-hepatic Cell Lines

Xavier Ponsoda, Cristina Núñez, José Vicente Castell and Maria
José Gómez-Lechón

The cytotoxicities of 20 chemicals (numbers 31–50) from the Multicenter Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC) programme were assessed with a primary culture of rat hepatocytes and with two hepatic cell lines (Hep G2 and FaO) and one non-hepatic cell line (3T3). The cytotoxicities of the chemicals were evaluated by using the MTT test after the cells had been exposed to the chemicals for 24 hours. For a better evaluation of results, dose–response curves were mathematically linearised and cytotoxicity was expressed as IC50 values and IC10 values (the concentration causing 50% and 10% loss of cell viability, respectively). We found that all the compounds showed similar acute basal cytotoxicity in all four cellular systems (regardless of whether the cells were, or were not, metabolically competent or were or were not of human origin). When these results were used to predicit human toxicity in terms of a mathematical parameter (prediction error [PE]), we found that all four systems gave similar predictions of human toxicity. The best cytotoxicity parameter included in the PE calculation was the IC50/10, because of an underestimation of human toxicity by in vitro systems. However, when PEs were calculated for rodent toxicity, better results were obtained. Data from the literature obtained by using other experimental models for predicting human toxicity were analysed according to the same criteria. We conclude that cellular systems are better predictive tools for human toxicity than are prokaryotic cells or whole-organism models.
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The activities of peptides “31–43”, “44–55” and “56–68” of A-gliadin on In Vitro Cultures of CaCo-2 Cells

Claudio Giovannini, Roberto Luchetti and Massimo De Vincenzi

In previous studies, various A-gliadin peptides with known amino acid sequences have been tested for their damaging effects on in vitro cultured atrophic coeliac mucosa. The largest common sequences among the in vitro toxic peptides were (gln)3-pro and pro-ser-(gln)2. Three of these active A-gliadin fragments were synthesised and characterised, namely, the peptides corresponding to the amino acid sequences “31–43” and “44–55”, which contain the sequences (gln)3-pro and pro-ser-(gln)2, respectively, and the “56–68” fragment lacking both active amino acid sequences. While the “56–68” A-gliadin peptide was completely inactive in CaCo-2 cells, the other two peptides were cytotoxic toward these cells to different extents. Our results confirm that CaCo-2 cells are a suitable model for the identification of toxic peptides responsible for coeliac pathogenesis.
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A General Measure of In Vitro Phototoxicity Derived from Pairs of Dose–Response Curves and its Use for Predicting the In Vivo Phototoxicity of Chemicals

Hermann-Georg Holzhütter

In pharmacology, it is common to evaluate the influence of external effectors (for example, temperature, pH, and presence of a second drug) on dose–response relations by the potency factor (PF50): PF50 = ED50 (– effector) ED50 (+ effector) where ED50 (± effector) denotes the 50% effective dose in the presence and in the absence of the effector, respectively. In this paper, the external effector is ultraviolet (UV) light, and PF50 is referred to as the photoirritancy factor (PIF). There are two parameters which limit the applicability and toxicological reliability of the PIF. Firstly, the physical properties (for example, water solubility) of the chemical tested and the constraints of the biological test system may make it difficult, or even impossible, to achieve sufficiently high doses to observe 50% of the maximal response. In such cases, no numeric value of the potency factor can be computed. Secondly, the potency factor does not take into account the absolute change in response induced by UV light, i.e. depending on the shape of the ±UV dose–response curves, the absolute change in response may be small although the PIF is large, and vice versa. This paper proposes a more general measure of phototoxicity, the mean photo effect (MPE), which can be assessed from pairs of dose–response curves, even if the 50% response level is not reached in one curve or in both. The MPE is a weighted average of PIFd values across different dose levels (d being common to both dose–response curves). The absolute response changes, ΔRd, i.e. the differences between the –UV curve and the +UV curve are used as weighting factors. The numerical computation of the MPE is based on theoretical curves obtained by fitting a mathematical model to the experimental dose–response data. Plotting PIFd and ΔRd versus the corresponding doses permits differences in the shapes of the two curves to be assessed, and possible alterations in the toxic mechanisms induced by UV light to be revealed. The variance of MPE is estimated by a bootstrap procedure. The use of the MPE is illustrated by its application to dose–response data obtained with a human keratinocyte assay of fibroblasts in the EU/COLIPA international validation project on photoirritancy.
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Conference Report

Michael F.W. Festing

Buried in Table 15, under the general heading of Risk Management in the European Commission’s proposed fifth programme of “policy and action in relation to the environment” (1992), is a target for a reduction of 50% in the numbers of vertebrates used for experimental purposes by the year 2000. The implications of this target were discussed at a meeting held in Brussels on 14 and 15 April 1997, which included representatives from national governments, regulatory authorities, the European Commission and the European Parliament, animal welfare organisations, commercial companies and academia.
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2017-01-09T06:26:23+00:00 Tags: |