Michael Balls & Julia Fentem
The Three Rs of Russell & Burch represent not only a unifying concept, but also a unified concept. There are many circumstances in which we cannot separate reduction, refinement and replacement. The development and application of non-animal procedures for use in the biomedical sciences is one such circumstance. Such replacement alternatives are contributing to significant reductions in the numbers of laboratory animals used, as well as to the refinement and replacement of laboratory animal procedures, while also producing real benefits for the biomedical sciences.
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