LATEST ISSUE

Volume 44, Issue 1 - March 2016

smoking an e-cigarette
SDS-PAGE analysis of IgY samples

Scientific Issues Raised by the Use of Dogs as Laboratory Animals

Michael Balls

Preclinical toxicity tests in dogs cannot be used to predict that a new drug will not have unacceptable adverse effects in humans, so they should not be a regulatory requirement
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News & Views

ATLA staff writer

In Vitro Model of Neural Crest Formation
Brazilian Government Recognises Conscientious Objection to Harmful Animal Use in Education
Taste Experiments with an Amoeba
Model of Fungal Skin Infection
Real-time Monitoring of C. elegans
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CAAT News & Views

CAAT staff

EU-ToxRisk Kick-off Meeting Held in The Netherlands
CAAT Researchers Create ‘Mini-brains’ in the Lab to Study Neurological Diseases
The EBTC’s Katherine Tsaioun at ToxForum
In Memoriam of Prof. Frauke Ohl
Good Read-Across Practices: Making it Work for You
CAAT Grantee Publishes Study Suggesting Oestrogen Protects Women Against the Flu
Recent Publications
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IIVS News & Views

Institute for In Vitro Sciences staff

Registration Open for IIVS April 2016 Workshop: In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products
Supporting the New Generation of Scientists
Funding Opportunity: ARDF Soliciting Research Proposals
Workshop & Training on Alternative Methods Held in Shanghai
IIVS Practical Methods in Toxicology Workshop
IIVS CEO Rodger Curren to Serve on the EBTC Scientific Advisory Council
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A Comparative Evaluation of Six Principal IgY Antibody Extraction Methods

Hao Ren, Wenjing Yang, Diraviyam Thirumalai, Xiaoying Zhang and Rüdiger Schade

Egg yolk has been considered a promising source of antibodies. Our study was designed to compare six principal IgY extraction methods (water dilution, polyethylene glycol [PEG] precipitation, caprylic acid extraction, chloroform extraction, phenol extraction, and carrageenan extraction), and to assess their relative extraction efficiencies and the purity of the resulting antibodies. The results showed that the organic solvents (chloroform or phenol) minimised the lipid ratio in the egg yolk. The water dilution, PEG precipitation and caprylic acid extraction methods resulted in high yields, and antibodies purified with PEG and carrageenan exhibited high purity. Our results indicate that phenol extraction would be more suitable for preparing high concentrations of IgY for non-therapeutic usage, while the water dilution and carrageenan extraction methods would be more appropriate for use in the preparation of IgY for oral administration.

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A Training Course on Laboratory Animal Science: An Initiative to Implement the Three Rs of Animal Research in India

Kunal Pratap and Vijay Pal Singh

There is a current need for a change in the attitudes of researchers toward the care and use of experimental animals in India. This could be achieved through improvements in the provision of training, to further the integration of the Three Rs concept into scientific research and into the regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). A survey was performed after participants undertook the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Category C-based course on Laboratory Animal Science (in 2013 and 2015). It revealed that the participants subsequently employed, in their future research, the practical and theoretical Three Rs approaches that they had learned. This is of great importance in terms of animal welfare, and also serves to benefit their research outcomes extensively. All the lectures, hands-on practical sessions and supplementary elements of the courses, which also involved the handling of small animals and procedures with live animals, were well appreciated by the participants. Insight into developments in practical handling and welfare procedures, norms, directives, and ethical use of laboratory animals in research, was also provided, through the comparison of results from the 2013 and 2015 post-course surveys.

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Non-human Primates in Neuroscience Research: The Case Against its Scientific Necessity

Jarrod Bailey and Katy Taylor

Public opposition to non-human primate (NHP) experiments is significant, yet those who defend them cite minimal harm to NHPs and substantial human benefit. Here we review these claims of benefit, specifically in neuroscience, and show that: a) there is a default assumption of their human relevance and benefit, rather than robust evidence; b) their human relevance and essential contribution and necessity are wholly overstated; c) the contribution and capacity of non-animal investigative methods are greatly understated; and d) confounding issues, such as species differences and the effects of stress and anaesthesia, are usually overlooked. This is the case in NHP research generally, but here we specifically focus on the development and interpretation of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), deep brain stimulation (DBS), the understanding of neural oscillations and memory, and investigation of the neural control of movement and of vision/binocular rivalry. The increasing power of human-specific methods, including advances in fMRI and invasive techniques such as electrocorticography and single-unit recordings, is discussed. These methods serve to render NHP approaches redundant. We conclude that the defence of NHP use is groundless, and that neuroscience would be more relevant and successful for humans, if it were conducted with a direct human focus. We have confidence in opposing NHP neuroscience, both on scientific as well as on ethical grounds.

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Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2014: A New Format, and Hopefully a New Era of Diminishing Animal Experimentation?

Michelle Hudson-Shore

The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2014 reports a welcome decline in animal experimentation in the UK. However, caution has to be exercised when interpreting these most recent figures, due to the significant changes made to satisfy the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU as to what information is reported and how it is reported. Comparisons to the figures and trends reported in previous years is difficult, so this paper focuses on the specifics of the current report, providing information on overall animal use and highlighting specific issues associated with genetically-altered animals, fish and primates. There is a detailed discussion of the extent of the changes, commenting on the benefits and disadvantages of the new format, in areas such as severity of procedures, legislation and techniques of special interest. It also considers the consequences of the changes on the effective monitoring of laboratory animal use, the openness and transparency regarding the impacts of animal use, and the implementation of Three Rs initiatives. In addition, suggestions for further improvements to the new format are made to the Home Office.

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Brazilian Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (BraCVAM) and the Process of Validation in Brazil

Octavio Presgrave, Wlamir Moura, Cristiane Caldeira, Elisabete Pereira, Maria H. Villas Boas and Chantra Eskes

The need for the creation of a Brazilian centre for the validation of alternative methods was recognised in 2008, and members of academia, industry and existing international validation centres immediately engaged with the idea. In 2012, co-operation between the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) and the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) instigated the establishment of the Brazilian Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (BraCVAM), which was officially launched in 2013. The Brazilian validation process follows OECD Guidance Document No. 34, where BraCVAM functions as the focal point to identify and/or receive requests from parties interested in submitting tests for validation. BraCVAM then informs the Brazilian National Network on Alternative Methods (RENaMA) of promising assays, which helps with prioritisation and contributes to the validation studies of selected assays. A Validation Management Group supervises the validation study, and the results obtained are peer-reviewed by an ad hoc Scientific Review Committee, organised under the auspices of BraCVAM. Based on the peer-review outcome, BraCVAM will prepare recommendations on the validated test method, which will be sent to the National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA). CONCEA is in charge of the regulatory adoption of all validated test methods in Brazil, following an open public consultation.

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Letter

Elizabeth Specht

Why does our concern for animals cease when we leave the laboratory?
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FRAME is the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments. It publishes ATLA. It also promotes the replacement of animals in laboratories through better science. Visit FRAME website
PiLAS is Perspectives in Laboratory Animal Science. It improves the quality of discussion about animal experimentation by giving scientists in all fields a place to exchange views. Read PiLAS