LATEST ISSUE

Volume 42, Issue 3 – June 2014

studnets working on training model

 

Editorial

Michael Balls

Animal Experimentation: Transparency and Openness Mean Little, Unless Accompanied by Honesty and Accountability. Delivery Plans, and Declarations and Concordats on transparency and openness, are all very well, but what will they really achieve with respect to the Three Rs?
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.

News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

Book Success
Taylorella Infection Model
EU Maintains Support for Research on Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Imaging Technology Grant for Nottingham University
Cancer Studies on Human Cells
Microfluidic Platform
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.

CAAT News & Views

Staff writer

CAAT at the European Parliament
CAAT Postdoc David Pamies Wins Two Awards at the SOT Annual Meeting
CAAT Hosts Fourth International Conference on Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing
Thomas Hartung Tours Australia and New Zealand
CAAT at the 2014 SOT Meeting
CAAT’s Program Administrator, Marilyn Principe, Retires
CAAT’s Paul Locke Calls for an End to Animal Testing of Cosmetics in the USA
ESTIV–CAAT–IVTIP Pre-congress Workshop
CAAT Co-authors Chapter on the History of the Three Rs in Reducing, Refining and Replacing the Use of Animals in Toxicity Testing

You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.

IIVS News & Views

ATLA Staff Writer

NociOcular Assay: A Novel In Vitro Assay to Assess Eye Stinging Potential
Practical Methods for In Vitro Toxicology Training Workshop and Custom Training Programme for BTBU Scientists
International Co-operation — EPAA
New Book Published: Reducing, Refining and Replacing the Use of Animals in Toxicity Testing
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.

Dorothy Hegarty Award Winners 2013

ATLA Staff Writer

The Dorothy Hegarty Award is presented annually to the author(s) of the paper published in the previous year’s volume of FRAME’s scientific journal, ATLA, which, in the opinion of the members of the Editorial Board, is likely to make the most significant contribution to the reduction, refinement and/or replacement of animal experimentation.
You need to register (for free) to download this article. Please log in/register here.

Perceived Barriers to the Adoption of Alternatives to Laboratory Animal Use for Rabies Diagnosis

Vanessa C. Bones, Heloísa C. Clemente, Daniel M. Weary and Carla F.M. Molento

The use of laboratory animals is still common practice, but some uses can be replaced by alternative methods, such as Virus Isolation in Cell Culture (VICC) instead of the Mouse Inoculation Test (MIT) for rabies diagnosis. The objective of this work was to describe current rabies diagnosis methods in Brazil and other countries, and the constraints associated with replacing this use of mice with alternative methods. Nine out of 12 Brazilian and 14 out of 43 non-Brazilian respondents reported that they currently used the MIT. Respondents in countries other than Brazil, male respondents, and those already employing in vitro methods for rabies diagnosis, expressed higher levels of support for the use of alternatives. The most frequently reported constraints associated with the use of alternatives were lack of laboratory facilities, equipment and materials (cited 17 times by respondents), and lack of financial resources (cited 15 times). The results indicate that many laboratories continue to use mice for rabies diagnosis. The proportion of laboratories that use mice appears to be especially high in Brazil, despite animal protection laws and technical guidelines that favour the use of alternatives. The barriers to the adoption of alternative methods identified in the current study provide a basis for facilitating changes in Brazil and elsewhere.

This article is currently only available in full to paid subscribers. Click here to subscribe, or
you will need to log in/register to buy and download this article


An Analysis of the Use of Animal Models in Predicting Human Toxicology and Drug Safety

Jarrod Bailey, Michelle Thew and Michael Balls

Animal use continues to be central to preclinical drug development, in spite of a lack of its demonstrable validity. The current nadir of new drug approvals and the drying-up of pipelines may be a direct consequence of this. To estimate the evidential weight given by animal data to the probability that a new drug may be toxic to humans, we have calculated Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive data set of 2,366 drugs, for which both animal and human data are available, including tissue-level effects and MedDRA Level 1–4 biomedical observations. This was done for three preclinical species (rat, mouse and rabbit), to augment our previously-published analysis of canine data. In common with our dog analysis, the resulting LRs show: a) that the absence of toxicity in the animal provides little or virtually no evidential weight that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) will also be absent in humans; and b) that, while the presence of toxicity in these species can add considerable evidential weight for human risk, the LRs are extremely inconsistent, varying by over two orders of magnitude for different classes of compounds and their effects. Therefore, our results for these additional preclinical species have important implications for their use in predicting human toxicity, and suggest that alternative methods are urgently required.

This article is currently only available in full to paid subscribers. Click here to subscribe, or
you will need to log in/register to buy and download this article


Development of a Training Model for Small Animal Thoracocentesis and Chest Tube Thoracostomy

Julie A. Williamson and Robin M. Fio Rito

Training veterinary students to perform emergency procedures, such as thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy, poses challenges in terms of providing adequate hands-on experience without compromising animal welfare. A small animal thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy model has been developed, that allows repetitive practice in a safe, standardised environment. The model has been incorporated into a clinical skills laboratory, where students work through computerised case studies in small groups, performing thoracocentesis or chest tube thoracostomy where indicated during the case. Student feedback indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the model and the laboratory experience, high perceived value of the case studies in improving learning, and increased confidence to perform the procedures under supervision. This model can replace the use of live animals while students are practising these procedures, improving their technique, and learning the appropriate safeguards used to prevent
injuries such as pulmonary trauma.

This article is currently only available in full to paid subscribers. Click here to subscribe, or
you will need to log in/register to buy and download this article


Comment

Gerhard Gstraunthaler

A Severe Case of Fraudulent Blending of Fetal Bovine Serum Strengthens the Case for Serum-free Cell and Tissue Culture Applications

This article is currently only available in full to paid subscribers. Click here to subscribe, or
you will need to log in/register to buy and download this article


FRAME is the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments. It publishes ATLA. It also promotes the replacement of animals in laboratories through better science. Visit FRAME website
PiLAS is Perspectives in Laboratory Animal Science. It improves the quality of discussion about animal experimentation by giving scientists in all fields a place to exchange views. Read PiLAS